AG magazine (in print)
Online magazine (pdf)
Online articles (html)
Literature- and poster projects
of the real lizards, family Lacertidae
Eremias FITZINGER, 1834
Agasyan, A. & Tuniyev, B. & Ananjeva, N. & Orlow, N. (2009) -
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Kami, H.G. & Hojjati, V. & Rezazadeh, E. (2009) -
In this study a total of 29 Eremias strauchi strauchi specimens (10 males, 16 females and three juveniles), collected from different localities in northwest of Iran were examined. The study was based on morphological features including color pattern, morphometric measurements, pholidotic characters, as well as ecological and biological observations especially habitat, reproductive biology and distribution. Habitat features and new distribution localities were documented. Egg characters of Eremias strauchi strauchi such as shape, size, number and color are reported for the first time. Also, some other new information on this species has been given.
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Kheyrandish, A. (2006) -
The Northwest of Iran, covering the three provinces of Ardabil, East Azerbaijan and West Azerbaijan, is a special area that, due to its particular geographical and climatic conditions has a rich biodiversity. The present study was conducted with the aim of studying the habitat, substrate type, feeding, conservation and distribution of lizards in this area from 2003 to now. Our results have revealed that there are 20 lizard species belonging to 13 genera and 5 families in this area. Lacertid lizards have the highest species diversity with 12 species. We also found that high ranges of habitats with a different substrate types are inhabited by lizard species. The number of species in pine regions compared with other types of area is considerably greater. The conservation status of lizards is unknown and requires further study.
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Kiabi, B.H. & Kami, H.G. & Hojjati, V. (2008) -
Northwestern Iran has unique geographical and climatic conditions that support a rich flora and fauna. In
view of the lack of in-depth studies on the lizards of the region, an investigation was started in the northern part of
Ardabil Province for an inventory of this component of the fauna and their habitats. Collections were made from
October 2003 to June 2005 and 165 specimens were collected and identified. Five families, 12 genera and 15 species
are represented, including Agamidae: Laudakia caucasia, Phrynocephalus persicus, Trapelus ruderatus; Lacertidae:
Lacerta media media, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta brandtii, Darevskia raddei raddei, Eremias strauchi strauchi,
Eremias arguta, Ophisops elegans; Scincidae: Mabuya aurata transcaucasica, Eumeces schneiderii princeps,
Abelepharus bivittatus; Anguidae: Pseudopus apodus and Gekkonidae: Cyrtopodion caspium caspium. Comparing
this list to the data provided by Anderson (1999), it seems that most of the lizards are being reported for the Province
for the first time. The families Gekkonidae and Anguidae are newly recorded, and the gecko Cyrtopodion caspium is
first recorded from the west and northwest of Iran. With seven species represented in the area, lacertids have the highest
species diversity among the lizard families and need further study. Habitat features also have been given for all
Ahmadzadeh, F. & Lymberakis, P. & Saberi Pirouza, R. & Kapli, P. (2017) -
The Iranian Plateau is an area of highly complex landscape and incredibly diverse habitats, from salt deserts to temperate forests. Such a heterogeneous environment, at the crossroads of Asia, Europe, and Africa, fuels the high diversity and uniqueness of the Iranian fauna and flora. Nevertheless, our understanding of the historical processes that shaped the Iranian biodiversity remains limited. In this context, we revisit the evolutionary history of the two most widespread lizard species on the Iranian Plateau (Eremias persica and Mesalina watsonana) to explore whether these two taxa of similar ecology have been subjected to similar historical processes. To achieve that, we performed a series of phylogenetic analyses and thoroughly tested all possible alternative topologies based on available mitochondrial sequences (cytochrome b and 12S ribosomal RNA). Additionally, we estimated the number of mitochondrial clusters based on a novel single-locus delimitation method and the time of their divergence, using recently inferred evolutionary rates for lacertid species. The results indicate that the two taxa have been shaped by similar physiographic and climatic barriers since both phytogenies split into similar geographical clusters. However, E. persica has twice as long evolutionary time on the Iranian Plateau than M. watsonana. The first divergence of E. persica was estimated in the Middle Miocene (~13 Mya), at the time of the major uplift of the Zagros mountain range. The Upper Miocene tectonic rearrangement that resulted in the uplift of the Alborz mountains coincides with the original split in M. watsonana (~6.6 Mya) and several contemporaneous splits within E. persica.
Ai, Q., Zongyua, L., Yiqiong, Z., Jun.Shen Zhongping, G..Guangwei, J. and Hongsu, W. (1992) -
E · a · argus possesses 2u = 38 chromomes with a chromosome formula as 2n = 341 + 2m+ZW.NF=38. The C-bands of centric regions are found on all of chromosomes. Telomeric C-bands can be seen of pairs -1 chromosomes. As compared with species of close relative Eremias brenchleyi .there is a world of difference between the two state chearly :The Karyotype of E · a · argus more evolution. Meanwhile conduct a discussion on the relation of Karyotype evolution and species.
Akman, B. & Yildizt, M.Z. & Özcan, A.F. & Bozkurt, M.A. & Igci, N. & Göcmen, B. (2018) -
Anhand ihrer Feld- und Literaturstudien identifizierten die Autoren 36 Amphibien- und Reptilienarten, die nachweislich in der turkischen Provinz Bitlis vorkommen, wobei die Fundorte und die an ihnen angetroffenen Habitattypen angegeben werden. die durch Beobachtung festgestellten Hauptgefahrdungsursachen werden benannt. insgesamt kennt man aus dem Untersuchungsgebiet Vorkommen von vier Froschlurch-, zwei Schwanzlurch- und Schildkrötenarten sowie 15 Echsen- und 13 Schlangenarten. Hyla savignyi Audouin, 1827, Heremites vittatus (Olivier, 1804), Timon kurdistanicus (Suchow, 1936) and Eirenis thospitis Schmidtler & Lanza, 1990, stellen Erstnachweise fur die Provinz Bitlis dar.
Al-Barazengy, A.N. & Salman, A.O. & Abdul Hameed, F.T. (2015) -
The present work provides a list of all amphibians and reptiles recorded from Iraq up to
2014. It includes 115 species (105 species of reptiles and 10 species of amphibians) dating back to 25 families (20 families of reptiles and 5 families of amphibians). Conservation status of each species was mentioned.
Alcock, A.W. & Finn, F. (1897) -
Alekperov A.M. (1978) -
Алекперов, А.M. (1978) -
Altunisic, A. & Gül, C. & Özdemir, N. & Tosunoglu, M. & Ergül, T. (2013) -
We studied, for the first time, the age structure of Eremias strauchi strauchi (Kessler, 1878) from a sample (18 adults) of a population living in the vicinity of Iğdır (eastern Turkey) using the skeletochronological method. The maximum observed longevity was 7 years for males and 5 years for females. The age of males ranged from 4 to 7 years (mean 4.91, n = 12), while that of females ranged from 4 to 5 years (mean 4.66, n = 6). The average snout–vent length (SVL) was 61.10 mm in males and 60.82 mm in females. The differences in mean age and SVL between sexes were not statistically significant. Intersexual differences in body size were male-biased, but this state was not statistically significant. Age and SVL were positively correlated in both sexes.
Amat Orriols, F. (2011) -
Morphologic diversity was studied in 129 species of lacertid lizards and their relationship with ecology by means of comparative analysis on seven linear morphometric measurements. Body size is the most important variable determining, a continuum among small bodied species and larger ones independently evolved through the lacertid phylogeny. This variable is strongly and positively correlated with the others masking the patterns of morphologic diversity. Multivariate analysis on size-adjusted variables show a negative covariation among relative tail and limb length. Remarkably, arboreal and semiarboreal species (Takydromus and the Equatorial African clade) appeared two times independently during the evolution of lacertids and are characterized by extremely long tails, and relatively long forelimbs in comparison with hindlimb length. The arboreal and glider lizard Holaspis with their short tail constitute the only exception. Another case of convergence is found by some species dwelling into dense vegetation or grass (Tropidosaura, Lacerta agilis, Takydromus amurensis or Zootoca) which have long tails and short limbs. On the opposite, species living in deserts, steppes or scrublands with scarce vegetation isolated into extended open areas have developed long hindlimbs and short forelimbs to achieve higher speed and maneuverability This is especially the case of Acanthodactylus and Eremias.
Ananjeva, N. & Borkin, L. & Darevsky, I. & Orlov, N. (1988) -
Ananjeva, N. & Papenfuss, T. & Bafti, S. & Sharifi, M. (2010) -
Ananjeva, N.B. (1971) -
Ananjeva, N.B. (1972) -
Ananjeva, N.B. (1976) -
Ananjeva, N.B. (1977) -
Ananjeva, N.B. (1995) -
Ananjeva, N.B. (2003) -
Morphometric evaluation of limb proportions in five sympatric desert lacertas of the genus Eremias, namely E. velox, E. grammica, E. intermedia, E. lineolata, and E. scripta inhabiting southern Balkhash Lake region (Sary-Ishyk-Otrau desert), Kazakhstan, was made. Considerable species differences in proportions of some limb segments associated with locomotion adaptations (burrowing, climbing etc) of these lizards have been found as well as sexual dimorphism and age variability. Associations among morphometric peculiarities (limb proportions), locomotion activity, spatial, temporal, and trophic characteristics of ecological niches of sympatric species are discussed.
Ananjeva, N.B. & Borkin, L.Y. & Darevsky, I.S. & Orlov, N.L. (1998) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Darevsky, I.S. (2004) -
Ананьева Н.Б. & Даревский И.С. (2004) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Doronin, I.V. (2020) -
The scientific biography of the outstanding herpetologist and specialist in zoogeography Sergei Alexandrovich Chernov (1903–1964) was reconstructed on the base the study of archival materials and literature sources. The text is divided into four parts, reflecting the main stages of his biography: 1903–1930 – Kharkiv, the beginning of the scientific career; 1930–1941 – relocation to Leningrad, Tajik-Pamir expedition; 1941–1945 – Great Patriotic War and evacuation; 1945–1964 – period after the Great Patriotic War. In the paper, we emphasize the line of teacher–student continuity begun by A.M. Nikolsky and S.A. Chernov in the herpetology department of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The appendix contains a list of his publications (52 ti- tles), taxa, described by him (11) and named in his honor (6). In majority of his publications, Chernov was the sole author; most of them were published in Russian; only one paper was written in a foreign (German) language. One of the main achievements of Chernov should be recognized a publication of the Guide of amphibians and reptiles of the USSR together with P.V. Terentyev. He made the greatest contribution to the study of the systematics of lizards and snakes, composition, zoogeography, and the history of the formation of the herpetofauna of Central Asia. According to his studies, the fauna of Central and Central Asia are subsidiaries of the once united region, what contradicted the views of his teacher Nikolsky, who developed the concept of M.A. Menzbir about the young postglacial origin of the Aral-Caspian deserts and the ancient, Eocene origin of the deserts of Central Asia.
Ананьева, Н.Б. & Доронин, И.В. (2020) -
На основе изучения архивных материалов и печатных источников реконструирована научная био- графия герпетолога и зооогеографа Сергея Александровича Чернова (1903–1964). Текст разделен на четыре части, отражающие основные этапы его биографии: 1903–1930 гг. – Харьков, начало научного пути; 1930–1941 гг. – переезд в Ленинград, Таджикско-Памирская экспедиция; 1941–1945 гг. – Великая Отечественная война и эвакуация; 1945–1964 гг. – послевоенный период. В тексте мы подчеркиваем продолжающуюся в отделении герпетологии Зоологического института РАН линию преемственно- сти «учитель–ученик», начатую А.М. Никольским и С.А. Черновым. В приложении дается список пу- бликаций ученого (52 наименования), опубликованных в 1926–1971 гг., таксонов, описанных им (11) и названных в его честь (6). В большинстве работ Чернов выступил единственным автором; при жизни на иностранном (немецком) языке была написана только одна работа. Одним из главных достижений Чернова следует признать издание совместно с П.В. Терентьевым определителей амфибий и рептилий СССР. Наибольший вклад он внес в исследование систематики ящериц и змей, состава, зоогеографии и истории формирования герпетофауны Средней Азии. Согласно его исследованиям фауна Средней и Центральной Азии – дочерние участки некогда единой области, что противоречило взглядам его учи- теля Никольского, развившего концепцию М.А. Мензбира о молодом послеледниковом происхождении Арало-Каспийских пустынь и древнем (эоценовом) – пустынь Центральной Азии.
Ananjeva, N.B. & Mazanaev, L.F. (2021) -
Н.Б. Ананьева & Л.Ф. Мазанаева. (2021) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Milto, K.D. (2021) -
Н.Б. Ананьева & К.Д. Мильто. (2021) -
Ananjeva, N.B. & Milto, K.D. & Barabanov, A.V. & Golynsky, E.A. (2020) -
A complete catalogue is provided for the type specimens of amphibians and reptiles collected by Nikolay A. Zarudny and stored mostly in the herpetological collection of the Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia (ZISP), as of August 2018. The collection contains 270 type specimens, representing 51 taxa (species and/or subspecies) of one family of turtles, one amphisbaenia family, five lizard families and four snake families from 74 type localities. As a result of studying Zarudny’s collections, mainly from Iran, was the description by A. M. Nikolsky of two new genera, Microgecko and Diplometopon, and 42 species and subspecies (varieties). Twenty-two of these taxa are regarded currently as valid.
Ananjeva, N.B. & Orlov, N.L. & Khalikov, R.G. & Darevsky, I.S. & Ryabov, S.A. & Barabanov, A.V. (2006) -
TERRA TYPICA. China, Chifu (now Yantai, Shandun Province).
DISTRIBUTION. The species is widely distributed in the eastern
part of Mongolia, in China (from the lake Kukunor up to Shanghai
city), in the western part of the Korean Peninsula and in Russia,
in the southern Buryatia (to the north approximately up to Ulan-
Ude city) and in the extreme south-west of the Chita region. In
Mongolia the most part of the findings are attributed to the north
and east from the range Khangai in Kobdos, Gobi-Altai, Dzabkhan,
Bayan-Khongor, South-Gobi, Middle-Gobi, Central, Bulan, Selengin,
Khentei, East-Gobi, Sukhe-Bator and Eastern aimaks. Of two
known subspecies within North Eurasia occurs the western one
– E. a. barbouri Schmidt, 1925.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species (E. a. barbouri) is included
into the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (2001): category
4 – species uncertain in its status distributed in Russia on the
extreme border of its distribution range.
TERRA TYPICA. Interstream area of the rivers Ural and Emba.
DISTRIBUTION. The distribution range stretches from northeastern
Romania in the west to south-western Mongolia (Jungar
Gobi) and north-western China (Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous
Region and Inner Mongolia) in the east, Turkey and Iran in the
south. Within the limits of North Eurasia it is widely distributed
from the steppe zone of Moldova, the Ukraine and the European
part of Russia including North Caucasus and the area of the Volga river in the west, to Kazakhstan, the Republics of Middle Asia
and Mongolia in the east. In Mongolia records are known in the
southern part of the Kobdos aimak and in the Gobi-Altai aimak.
Disjuncted from the main distribution range the species occurs
in the eastern Transcaucasia, within the limits of Azerbaijan,
eastern Georgia and the basin of the Sevan Lake in Armenia.
The most northern, evidently isolated habitats are known in the
Volzhsko-Kamsky Territory from the Samara bend and Buzuluksky
The species is divided into 6 subspecies which are different,
in particular, by the above-described types of the coloration
of the body and the size proportions. E. a. arguta (Pallas, 1773)
– is distributed in the western Kazakhstan. E. a. deserti (Gmelin,
1789) – occupies the whole western part of the distribution range
from the river Ural in the east up to the eastern part of the North
Caucasus in the south-west. E. a. transcaucasica Darevsky, 1953
inhabits eastern Transcaucasia, E. a. uzbekistanica Chernov, 1934
– Uzbekistan and the frontier regions of Turkmenistan, southern
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. E. a. darevskii Tsaruk, 1986
– Issyk Kul hollow in Kyrgyzstan. E. a. potanini Bedriaga, 1912 lives
in the area adjacent to the Balkhash Lake and Zaisan hollow in
CONSERVATION STATUS. The steppe – runner E. a. potanini
is included into the Red Data Book of Mongolia (1997) as a
rare species, it is protected on the territory of the Great Gobi
reservation. E. a. uzbekistanica is included into the Red Data Book
of Turkmenistan (1999) as a species which habitats are destroyed
the number of is reducing (category 2). E. a. transcaucasica is
included into the Red Data Book of Armenia (1987) with the status
“species disjuncted from the main distribution range”. E. a. deserti
is included into the Red Data Book of Moldova (2001): category
– Critically Endangered species.
TERRA TYPICA. Karakum, Turkmenistan.
DISTRIBUTION. Middle Asia within the plains of Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, middle and southern Kazakhstan. The
northern border of the distribution range runs in Kazakhstan, in
some places nearly attaining 49°N. Outside of Middle Asia it also
occurs in the north-east of Iran (eastern Khorasan), in the adjacent
plain regions of Afghanistan to the north of Hindu Kush, as well
as in the east up to the western regions of the Xinjiang-Uyghur
Autonomous Region, China.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The number is stable and does not require
special measures on its maintenance.
TERRA TYPICA. Kyzyl Kum, region of Aral-Caspian deserts.
DISTRIBUTION. Middle Asia within the limits of Turkmenistan,
Uzbekistan, extreme west of Tajikistan and Kazakhstan. The northern
border of the distribution range stretches in Kazakhstan from
the north-eastern coast of the Caspian Sea and northern coasts
of the Aral Sea to the north of the Balkhash Lake across the desert
Betpack-Dala up to the basin of the Lake Alakol’. CONSERVATION STATUS. The number is stable. The species does
not require species conservation measures.
TERRA TYPICA. Settlement Sary-Jaz, ravine Terekty, Kyrgyzstan.
DISTRIBUTION. This form of the complex “Eremias multiocellata”
is known from the central Tien Shan (basin of the river Sary-Jaz),
Kyrgyzstan and China (Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region, including
Kashgaria in the southern Tien Shan). Populations of this
species were referred earlier to Eremias buechneri.
CONSERVATION STATUS. Undetermined.
TERRA TYPICA. Betwen Faizabad and Nuzi, eastern Iran.
DISTRIBUTION. The republics of the Middle Asia within
Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, southern and south-eastern Tajikistan
and south of Kazakhstan, where it occurs isolatedly in the area
adjacent to the Balkhash Lake. Besides, it is distributed in the
north-eastern Iran (Khorasan) and northern Afghanistan.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special conservation
TERRA TYPICA. Desert Gobi, the road between Sume and river
DISTRIBUTION. It inhabits montane and partly submontane regions
of Tien Shan and Pamir-Altai in Kyrgyzstan, eastern and
south-eastern Kazakhstan and neighbouring Uzbekistan. It is
known in Tuva and widely distributed in Mongolia (Bayan Ulug,
Kobdo, Ubsunur, Dzabkhan, Gobi-Altai, Bayan-Khongor, Uver-
Khangai, South-Gobi, Eastern-Gobi and Middle-Gobi aimaks). It is
also known from north-western China southwards to the mountain
ranges of Nan Shan and north-eastern Tibet, in the desert Alashan
and the southern part of Mongolia in the east. During recent years
the taxonomic status of some subspecific forms was revised, they
are considered as separate species.
CONSERVATION STATUS. As a narrow-ranged and small in number
species it is included into the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan (1996):
category 4 – a rare species, known by single specimens.
TERRA TYPICA. Sistan, Iran.
DISTRIBUTION. It occurs in the extreme south-east of Turkmenistan,
in southern Uzbekistan and in the south-west of Tajkistan up to
Kurgan-Tyube and Pyandzh river in the north-east of Iran and in
the north of Afghanistan.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species is included into the Red Data
Book of Turkmenistan (1999): category 2 – species, the habitats
and number of which are sharply reducing, and into the Red Data
Book of Uzbekistan (2003) – vulnerable, reducing, mosaically
distributed species (2/VU:D).
TERRA TYPICA. Settlement Tengizbai, Altai Range.
DISTRIBUTION. It occurs in the mountains of Tien Shan system and
northern Pamir-Altai within the limits of Kyrgyzstan, Ferganskaya
valley in Uzbekistan and northern Tajikistan. The record of this
species in the extreme south-east of Kazakhstan (Terskei-Alatau)
needs to be confirmed more precisely.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special conservation
TERRA TYPICA. Isfahan city, central Iran.
DISTRIBUTION. It occurs in the south of Turkmenistan where two
isolated populations are known – in the valley of the river Kushka
and the depression Er-Oilan-Duz in the Badkhyz Nature Reserve.
The main distribution is situated within Iran, in the central and eastern
parts of the Iran Plateau. CONSERVATION STATUS. A common species on the territory of
Turkmenistan. Species with a stable number lives on the protected
territory of the Badkhyz Nature Reserve.
TERRA TYPICA. Town Nakhichevan, Azerbaijan.
DISTRIBUTION. It occurs in the left-bank valley of the river Aras in
Armenia and in Nakhichevan, Azerbaijan, i.e. approximately from
the town Echmiadzin in the west up to the southern foothills of the
Megrinsky range. Outside of the eastern Transcaucasia it occurs in
the extreme east of Turkey and in the north-western Iran.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special conservation
TERRA TYPICA. Alashan desert.
DISTRIBUTION. It is distributed mainly in the north China (Inner
Mongolia, Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region) and in Mongolia,
from where it penetrates into the territory of the neighbouring Tuva.
In North Eurasia the species is widely distributed in the western
and southern Mongolia (Ubsunur, Kobdo, Dzabkhan, Gobi-Altai,
Bayan-Khongor, Uwer-Khangai, South-Gobi, East-Gobi, Middle-
Gobi aimaks) and in Tuva [in Russia]. In the flood-plain of the river
Nariin-Gol lives the subspecies E. p. tuvensis Szczerbak, 1970.
CONSERVATION STATUS. E. p. tuvensis is included into the Red Data
book of the Russian Federation (2001): category 3 – rare species
within the limits of Russia known on the northern periphery of the
TERRA TYPICA. Town Shirabad, Surkhandar’inskaya region,
DISTRIBUTION. It occurs in the extreme south-east of Turkmenistan,
south of Uzbekistan and in the south-western Tajikistan. Outside
of Middle Asia the Tajik Racerunner is known from northern
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species is included into the Red Data
Book of Turkmenistan (1999) as a rare species – category 3.
TERRA TYPICA. Region between the Aral and Caspian Seas.
DISTRIBUTION. The species is distributed in sandy deserts
of Middle Asia, Kazakhstan, eastern Iran, adjacent regions of
Afghanistan and northern Belujistan (Pakistan). In North Eurasia it
occurs in Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, western Tajikistan and southern
Kazakhstan. The northern border of the distribution range
runs in Kazakhstan, from north-western coasts of the Caspian Sea
along the northern area adjacent to the Aral Sea and southern
area adjacent to the Balkhash Lake up to the basin of Alakul Lake
in the east.
Three subspecies are described, which differ mainly by
the color pattern of the dorsal surface of the body. E. s. scripta
Strauch, 1867 occupies the most part of the distribution range
in Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. E. s. lasdini Tzarevsky, 1918 lives in the south-east of Uzbekistan and south-western Tajikistan.
E. s. pherganensis Szczerbak et Washetko, 1973 is known from
Ferganskaya valley, mainly in the northern Tadzhikistan.
CONSERVATION STATUS. Fergana Sand racerunner E. s. pherganensis
is included into the Red Data Book of Uzbekistan (2003):
category 1, EN – endangered, locally distributed endemic subspecies,
and of Tajikistan (1997) – the category an endangered
TERRA TYPICA. Town Echmiadzin, Armenia.
DISTRIBUTION. In North Eurasia the species is distributed in the
eastern Transcaucasia: the valley of the middle current of Aras river,
from the south-eastern foothills of the Karabakh range and the
valley of Bargushat in the south-east up to the southern spurs of
the mountain Aragaz and Oktemberyanskaya steppe in the west,
in the Karabakh desert and on the plateau Zuvand, as well as in
the south-western Turkmenistan (southern slopes of the mountain
ranges Kyupendag, Karagez and Kopet Dagh). Eremias strauchi
occurs in eastern Turkey and in the north-west and north-east of
Iran, in Iranian Azerbaijan.
The species is differentiated into two subspecies. The nominative
subspecies is distributed in the eastern Transcaucasia, as well
as in the eastern Turkey and Azerbaijani provinces of north-western
Iran. The second subspecies, E. s. kopetdaghica Szczerbak
1972 is distributed in Kopet Dagh, northern Khorasan and eastern
Mazanderan (Turkmenistan and Iran).
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special protection
TERRA TYPICA. Kyrgyzstan, region of the Lake Issyk Kul, vicinity of
the town Przhevalsk.
DISTRIBUTION. This form of the complex “Eremias multiocellata”
is distributed in the basin of the Lake Issyk Kul.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special protection
TERRA TYPICA. Kyrgyzstan, valley of Arpa River.
DISTRIBUTION. This form of the complex “Eremias multiocellata” is
distributed in the basin of the river Naryn in Kyrgyzstan, the valley
of the rivers At-Bashi and Arpa. Foothills of Moldo-Too, Baibishe-
Too, Yaman-Too, At-Bashi and Naryn-Too.
CONSERVATION STATUS. Not determined.
the Ural River).
DISTRIBUTION. Rapid racerunner is a widely distributed species,
occurring from the eastern part of the North Caucasus and lower
region of the Volga River to northern Iran, Afghanistan and eastwards
up to north-western China (Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous
Region., Inner Mongolia and Hansu Province). In North Eurasia
the distribution range of the species stretches into the eastern
Ciscaucasia, lower region of Volga River, eastern Transcaucasia in
the lowland Georgia and Azerbaijan, Middle Asia and Kazakhstan.
Several subspecies are described, of which three subspecies occur within the limits of the countries of North Eurasia. E. v. caucasica
Lantz, 1828 inhabits eastern Ciscaucasia and Transcaucasia.
The most part of the distribution range is occupied by the nominative
subspecies E. v. velox, and in the Issyk Kul hollow occurs the
subspecies E. v. borkini Eremchenko et Panfilov, 1999, described
from the Tien Shan mountains, in Kyrgyzstan (southern shore of
the Lake Issyk Kul, from the region between the rivers Ak-Terek
and Ak Sai).
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species does not require special protection
TERRA TYPICA. Eastern Turkestan, Yarkend, Kashgaria, China
(Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region).
DISTRIBUTION. The main distribution range of the species is
situated in north-western China (Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous
Region, Inner Mongolia) and in Mongolia (Gobi-Altai, Bayan-
Khongor, South-Gobi aimaks). An isolated population lives in the
Zaissan hollow in the south-east of Kazakhstan.
CONSERVATION STATUS. The species is included into the Red Data
Book of Kazakhstan (1996): category 4 – not investigated species
with a limited distribution range.
TERRA TYPICA. Town Yarkend, Kashgaria, China (Xinjiang-Uyghur
DISTRIBUTION. The distribution range of this species is marked by
the Tarim basin which includes the southern slopes of Tien Shan,
piedmont plains and foothills of Kunlun and eastern Pamir (excluding
sands Takla-Makan) in China and eastern Alai in Kirghizia. Earlier
this form was considered as a subspecies of multiocellated racerunner
E. multiocellata Gunther, 1872.
CONSERVATION STATUS. Not determined.
Ananjeva, N.B. & Tsellarius, A.Yu. (1986) -
Anatolievna, A.G. & Vitalievich, V.E. (2012) -
Анатольевна, А.Г. & Витальевич, В.Е. (2012) -
Anderson, J. (1872) -
Anderson, S.C. (1968) -
Anderson, S.C. (1999) -
Acanthodactylus blanfordi, Acanthodactylus boskianus, Acanthodactylus grandis, Acanthodactylus micropholis, Acanthodactylus nilsoni, Acanthodactylus opheodurus, Acanthodactylus schmidti, Eremias acutirostris, Eremias andersoni, Eremias arguta, Eremias fasciata, Eremias grammica, Eremias intermedia, Eremias lalezharica, Eremias lineolata, Eremias nigrocellata, Eremias nigrolateralis, Eremias persica, Eremias pleskei, Eremias scripta, Eremias strauchi strauchi, Eremias strauchi kopetdaghica, Eremias velox velox, Lacerta brandtii, Lacerta cappadocica urmiana, Lacerta chlorogaster, Lacerta defilippii, Lacerta media media, Lacerta mostoufi, Lacerta praticola praticola, Lacerta princeps princeps, Lacerta princeps kurdistanica. Lacerta raddei raddei, Lacerta raddei vanensis, Lacerta steineri, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta valentini valentini, Lacerta zagrosica, Mesalina brevirostris brevirostris, Mesalina brevirostris fieldi, Mesalina watsonana, Ophisops elegans.
Anderson, S.C. (2000) -
Relatively little is known about the ecology of lizards in Iran. This paper serves as a brief introduction to five representative biotopes and their associated lizard species living syntopically, based largely on my own observations. The selected localities are found in 1) Masjed Soleyman, foothills of the Zagros Mountains, Khuzestan; 2) Kupal dunes, on the Mesopotamian Plain, Khuzestan; 3) Shah ‘Abbas Caravanserai, Dasht-e Kavir, on the Central Plateau; 4) an abandoned village in Sistan, ruined buildings and loose loess substrate; 5) Hyrcanian Forest, northern slopes of lower Alborz Mountains and the Gorgan region. The biotopes are characterized briefly and the concept of syntopy is discussed.
Anderson, S.C. & Leviton, A.E. (1967) -
Anderson, S.C. & Leviton, A.E. (1969) -
The collection of amphibians and reptiles made by the Street Expedition to Afghanistan 1965 consists of 247 specimens, including six species of amphibians and 38 species of reptiles. Definite Afghan localities are recorded for the first time for the following species: Agama agrorensis, Agama erythrogaster, Agama himalayana, Agama lehmanni, Agama nuristanica (new species herein described), Agama abdakhshana (new species herein described), Cyrtodactylus watsoni, Hemidactylus flaviviridis, Eremias nigrocellata, Eryx elegans (type was recorded as coming from Afghanistan, but n precise locality was given, An analysis of the zoogeographic significance of this and other collections from Afghanistan is contemplated for the future.
Acanthodactylus cantoris, Eremias guttulata watsonana, Eremias nigrocellata, Eremias velox persica.
Andersson, L.G. (1935) -
Acanthodactylus boskianus, Eremias rubropunctata, Latastia spinalis.
Annaev, D. (1973) -
Anonymous (2013) -
Arakelyan, M. (2009) -
Arakelyan, M. (2012) -
Arakelyan, M. & Danielyan, F. & Corti, C. & Sindaco, R. & Leviton, A. (2011) -
Arakelyan, M. & Danielyan, F. & Serobyan, V. (2005) -
Skeletochronological study of Eremias strauchi (n =18) has shown equable pattern of growth. The lizards under study reach sexual maturity after the 1st or 2nd year of life and have two clutches. Maximum age for the studied sample was 4–5 years.
Аракелян, М. & Даниелян, Ф. & Серобян, В. (2005) -
Arakelyan, M.S. (2012) -
The unique isolated population of racerunner Eremias arguta transcaucasica in Armenia is under strong human pressure and seeks urgent conservation measures. The population has a limited area (approximately 9 hectares) on the shore of Lake Sevan, in vicinity of a settlement. Հայաստանում բազմագույն մողեսիկի միակ և մեկուսացված պոպուլյացիան գտնվում է մարդածին գործոնի ուժեղ ազդեցության ներքո, և անհրաժեշտ են անհապաղ միջոցառումներ նրա պահպանության համար: Պոպուլյացիան գտնվում է Սևանա լճի ափին, բնակելի տարածքից ոչ շատ հեռու և գրավում է 9 հա տարածք:
Единственно известная изолированная популяция разноцветной ящурки в Армении находится под сильным антропогенным прессом и требует срочных мер по ее охране. Популяция занимает ограниченную площадь (около 9 гектаров) на берегу озера Севан недалеко от населенного пункта.
Arnold, E.N. (1987) -
Twenty-four species of lacertid lizards were examined at 31 sites in western Yogoslavia, Greece and Iberia. Comparative observations were made on over 4500 individual lizards, noting such features as times of activitiy, hunting methods, diet, micro- and macrohabitat, refuges used and body temperature. These data are used as a basis for assessing resource partition in related sympatric species, for find out whether different systematic groups have characteristic types of niche, and for comparing cumminity structures in the peninsulas of southern Europa.
Acanthodactylus erythrurus, Algyroides marchi, Algyroides moreoticus, Algyroides nigropunctatus, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta graeca, Lacerta horvathi, Lacerta lepida, Lacerta monticola, Lacerta oxycephala, Lacerta mosorensis, Lacerta schreiberi, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta vivipara, Podarcis bocagei, Podarcis erhardii, Podarcis hispanica, Podarcis melisellensis, Podarcis milensis, Podarcis muralis, Podarcis peloponnesiaca, Podarcis sicula, Podarcis taurica, Psammodromus algirus, Psammodromus hispanicus.
Arnold, E.N. (2002) -
Differences in surface structure (ober- hautchen) of body scales of lacertid lizards involve cell size, shape and surface profile, presence or absence of fine pitting, form of cell margins, and the occurrence of longitudinal ridges and pustular projections. Phylogenetic information indicates that the primitive pattern involved narrow strap-shaped cells, with low posteriorly overlapping edges and relatively smooth surfaces. Deviations from this condition produce a more sculptured surface and have developed many times, although subsequent overt reversals are uncommon. Like variations in scale shape, different patterns of dorsal body microornamentation appear to confer different and conflicting performance advantages. The primitive pattern may reduce friction during locomotion and also enhances dirt shedding, especially in ground-dwelling forms from moist habitats. However, this smooth microornamentation generates shine that may compromise cryptic coloration, especially when scales are large. Many derived features show correlation with such large scales and appear to suppress shine. They occur most frequently in forms from dry habitats or forms that climb in vegetation away from the ground, situations where dirt adhesion is less of a problem. Microornamentation differences involving other parts of the body and other squamate groups tend to corroborate this functional interpretation. Microornamentation features can develop on lineages in different orders and appear to act additively in reducing shine. In some cases different combinations may be optimal solutions in particular environments, but lineage effects, such as limited reversibility and different developmental proclivities, may also be important in their genesis. The fine pits often found on cell surfaces are unconnected with shine reduction, as they are smaller than the wavelengths of most visible light.
Arribas, O.J. (2012) -
In this paper we deal on the ultraviolet color (invisible to us): where we can find it, the capability of animals to see it and the advantages that this color perception offers to them. As the simplest way to detect it is the photography, we describe and review how to photograph the UV, as a result of 15 years of amateur experience, searching
and testing nearly in complete blindness due to the lack of practical information about “how to do it”. We describe the different kinds of photography (chemical and digital); the cameras and objectives suitable (both astronomically expensive ones and cheap options); what are the best characteristics that the objectives should have for this purpose; the films suitable for their use in chemical photography; the different filters (current or discontinued) manufactured along the years; and the subtle combinations among the different materials to obtain pure UV photographs. This
kind of scientific photography is mainly used in forensics, forgery detection, art dermatology and less in Natural History, despite the fact that a great part of animals see this color and use it in important questions of their biology as the social behavior, mate choice or the food search.
Aslanyan, A.V. & Petrosyan, R.P. & Arakelyan, M.S. (2014) -
Autumn, K. & Wang, Y.-Z. (1995) -
Bader, T. & Kopeczky, R. & Riegler, C. & Wieland, F. (2016) -
In Armenien kommen drei Arten der Gattung Lacerta (L. agilis, L. media, L. strigata), drei Arten der Gattung Eremias (E. arguta, E. pleskei, E. strauchi) sowie jeweils eine Art der Gattung Parvilacerta (P. parva) und Ophisops (O. elegans) vor. Neben Kurzbeschreibungen der einzelnen Arten wird auf Beobachtungen der Eidechsen im Gelände während einer Reise im Jahr 2015 eingegangen.
Baeckens, S. & Edwards, S. & Huyghe, K. & Van Damme, R. (2015) -
Animals communicate via a variety of sensory channels and signals. Studies on acoustic and visual communication systems suggest that differences in the physical environment contribute to the variety of signalling behaviour, with species investing in those signals that are transmitted best under the local conditions. Whether or not environmental tuning also occurs in chemical communication systems has received much less attention. In the present study, we examined the effect of several aspects of the physical environment on the chemical communication system of lacertid lizards (family Lacertidae). The numbers of femoral pores are used as a proxy reflecting how much a particular species invests in and relies upon chemical signalling. Femoral pores are specialized epidermal structures that function as a secretion channel for the waxy substance produced by glands. In some lacertid species, the secretion carries infochemicals that play an important role in social communication. The number of femoral pores varies considerably among species. We have compiled data on femoral pore numbers for 162 species and tested for the effects of climate and substrate use. After correcting for body size and taking the phylogenetic relationships among the species into account, we found no effect of climate conditions or latitude on species pore numbers. Substrate use did affect pore numbers: shrub-climbing species tended to have fewer femoral pores than species inhabiting other substrates.
Bafti, S.S. & Anderson, S. & Sharifi, M. & Papenfuss, T. (2009) -
Bahmani, Z. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Gharzi, A. (2011) -
During field work in western regions of the Iranian Plateau in the Zagros Mountains, a single specimen belonging to the genus and subgenus Eremias Fitzinger, 1834 was collected from the highlands of Badr and Parishan (at about 2466 m elevation) in south of the city of Qorveh, Kurdistan Province, western Iran (47°, 47’ E; 35°, 04’ N) in July 2010. This is the first record of occurrence of Eremias (Eremias) montanus from Kurdistan Province.
Bahmani, Z. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Gharrzi, A. (2014) -
During field work in western regions of the Iranian Plateau in the Zagros Mountains in September 2010, a single specimen belonging to the genus and subgenus Eremias Fitzinger, 1834 was collected from the protected area of Bijar (at about 1619 m elevation) in north of the city of Bijar, Kurdistan Province, western Iran (47°, 34’ E; 36°, 00’ N).
Baig, K.J. & Masroor, R. (2006) -
A new species of Eremias has been described from the Cholistan Desert of Pakistan. It constitutes the first record of the genus Eremias from the Oriental (Indian) region. The species has been named Eremias cholistanica, after the Cholistan Desert of Pakistan. This striped desert lacerta is not only different from all its congeners in several morphological characteristics but has been collected from an area distant from the previous known range of Eremias.
Baig, K.J. & Masroor, R. & Arshad, M. (2008) -
Present studies are aimed to document the herpetofauna of Cholistan Desert and study its ecology. During the last three years from 2001 to 2003, attempts have been made to collect and observe the amphibians and reptiles in different parts of Cholistan Desert. More than four thousand specimens belonging to 44 species have so far been collected/observed from the study area. Among different collecting techniques adopted for these studies, “Pit-fall” traps and “Hand Picking” showed best results. The voucher specimens have been catalogued and are presently lying with Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Islamabad.
Baillie, J.E.M. & Batsaikhan, N. & Eremchenko, V. & King, S. & Munkhbayar, K. & Semenov, D. (2006) -
Bakiev, A.G. (2018) -
Background. The purpose of the work is to clarify the species of turtles, lizards and snakes that P. S. Pallas noted in the Volga river basin and the Volga-Ural inter fluve. Pallas’s data on the reptile fauna of the region are compared with current data Materials an methods. The basis of the study was the analysis of Pallas’s publications. The names of reptiles used by Pallas with their modern names are identified. Results. From the Volga region, Pallas described two species of reptiles that are new to science: “Coluber melanis” (black forest-steppe form of the Vipera berus) and “Lacerta pipiens” (Alsophylax pipiens). From the interfluve of the Volga and the Ural Pallas described two species yet: “Lacerta apoda” (Pseudopus apodus) and “Lacerta mystacea” (Phrynocephalus mystaceus). The great naturalist noted in the Volga region also reptiles, whose modern names are: Emys orbicularis, Phrynocephalus helioscopus, Phrynocephalus guttatus, Phrynocephalus mystaceus, Eremias velox, Lacerta agilis, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessellata, Hierophis caspius, Gloydius halys, Vipera berus, Vipera renardi. At the beginning of the XXI century, one species of turtles, 11 species of lizards and 10 species of snakes reliably inhabit the region. Conclusions. The species of reptiles noted by Pallas, except for the Pseudopus apodus and the Gloydius halys, reliably inhabit the region at present. The data of the Pallas serve as a basis for studying the dynamics of species composition, distribution, abundance and phenology of reptiles in the Volga basin.
Bakiev, A.G. (2022) -
Bakiev, A.G. & Gorelov, R.A. & Klenina, A.A. (2020) -
Nine reptile species inhabited on the five sites in the Orenburgsky State Nature Reserve, these are Emys orbicularis, Eremias arguta, Lacerta agilis, Zootoca vivipara, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata, Coronella austriaca, Elaphe dione, and Vipera renardi. Lacerta agilis is the only abundant species. Over the last 20-25 years, the abundance of at least three species (Emys orbicularis, Zootoca vivipara, Natrix natrix) has decreased in some clusters of the reserve.
Bakiev, A.G. & Gorelov, R.A. & Klenina, A.A. & Velmovsky, P.V. & Kalmykova, O.G. (2021) -
The information about the northern range boundary of the steppe-runner Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773) has changed in recent decades. Based on the reliable recordins in 2001-2020 from 12 locations the northern range boundary between Volga and Ural was specified. It runs through the Engelsky District of the Saratov Region, through the Stavropolsky, Kinelsky, Bogatovsky and Borsky Districts of the Samara Region, through the Buzuluksky and Tashlinsky Districts of the Orenburg Region of Russia. The northern limit of the range should be considered the Volga above-floodplain slope in the left-bank part of the Stavropolsky district in Samara region. All specimens encountered had body coloration typical of Eremias arguta deserti (Gmelin, 1789). The locations of steppe-runner are confined to open spaces treeless and without a dense herbaceous vegetation on the southern sandy slopes.
Bakiev, A.G. & Velmosky, P.V. & Gorrlov, R.A. & Kalmykova, O.G. & Khramova, M.A. (2016) -
The report describes the occurrence (observation) of the Steppe Runner Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773) that took place in the summer of 2016 in Derzhavin Forestry of Buzuzluk Pine Forest National Park (Buzuluk District of Orenburg Region).
Bannikov, A.G. (1971) -
Eremias guttulata, Eremias velox, Eremias strauchi, Eremias persica, Eremias regeli, Eremias multiocellata, Eremias nikolskii, Eremias pleskei, Eremias lineolata, Eremias scripta, Eremias intermedia, Eremias nigrocellata, Eremias arguta, Eremias argus, Eremias brenchleyi, Eremias przewalskii, Eremias grammica, Lacerta strigata, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta trilineata, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta parva, Lacerta vivipara, Lacerta taurica, Lacerta brandtii, Lacerta derjugini, Lacerta praticola, Lacerta chlorogaster, Lacerta saxicola, Lacerta caucasica, Lacerta rudis, Ophisops elegans, Takydromus amurensis, Takydromus wolteri.
Bannikov, A.G. (2018) -
Bannikov, A.G. & Darevsky, I.S. & Ishchenko, V.G. & Rustamov, A.K. & Szczerbak, N.N. (1977) -
Банников А.Г. & Даревский И.С. & Ищенко, В.Г. & Рустамов, А.К. & Щербак, Н.Н. (1977) -
Barabanov, A.V. (2009) -
Some nomenclature problems of the Eremias (Sauria, Lacertidae) genus are discussed. Aspidorhinus Eichwald, 1841 is shown to be a senior synonym of Dimorphea Eremchenko, 1999 and so should be a valid subgeneric name for the Eremias velox species group. A list of the subgenus’ species is given.
Барабанов А.В. (2009) -
Обсуждаются некоторые номенклатурные проблемы рода Eremias. Показано, что Dimorphea Eremchenko, 1999 - младший синоним Aspidorhinus Eichwald, 1841, поэтому именно последнее название следует использовать в качестве валидного подродового для группы видов Eremias velox. Приведен список видов, входящих в данный подрод.
Barabanov, A.V. & Doronin, I.V. (2020) -
Ilya S. Darevsky co-described 70 taxa (three genera, 46 species, 21 subspecies) in 44 publications belonging to five orders, eight families of amphibians and reptiles during his career in herpetology. Of this number, three taxa are fossil and 57 taxa are currently considered as valid. By the regions where new taxa were discovered Southeast Asia and Western Asia (includes Caucasus and Asia Minor) dominates. The largest number of descriptions was published in the Russian Journal of Herpetology.
Baran, I. & Atatür, M.K. (1998) -
Baran, I., Kumlutaş, Y., Tok, C.V., Ilgaz, C., Kaska, Y., Olgun, K., Türkozan, O. & F. Iret (2004) -
Die Autotren berichten über zwei Aufsammlungen von Amphibien und Reptilien aus dem Gebiet der ostanatolischen Städte Erzurum, Iğdir, Kars und Ardahan. Das Material umfaßt drei Anurentaxa, eine Schildkrötenform, 11 Eidechsen- und 11 Schlangenarten in 172 Exemplaren.
Bufo viridis, Rana ridibunda complex, Rana camerani, Testudo graeca armeniaca, Phrynocephalus persicus, Eremias pleskei, Eremias strauchi, Lacerta agilis brevicaudata, Parvilacerta parva, Darevskia parvula, Darevskia raddei, Darevskia valentini valentini, Darevskia uzzelli, Lacerta trilineata, Ophisops elegans, Typhlops vermicularis, Eryx jaculus turcicus, Haemorrhois ravergieri, Hierophis schmidti, Platyceps najadum, eirenis modestus, Eirenis punctatolineatus, Coronella austriaca, natrix natrix persa, Natrix tessellata, Vipera wagneri.
Barashkina, J.V. (1987) -
Barashkina, J.V. & Kaplin, V.G. (1987) -
Basoglu, M. (1968) -
Başoğlu, M. & Hellmich, W. (1959) -
Başoğlu, M. & Hellmich, W. (1968) -
Basoglu, M. & I. Baran (1977) -
Bauer, A.M. & Günther, R. (1995) -
A complete catalogue is provided for the type specimens of lacertid lizards in the herpetological collection of the Zoological Museum, Berlin, as of December, 1993. The collection contains a total of 514 type specimens, representing 63 taxa, of which 42 are currently regarded as valid at the specific or subspecific level. Types representing an additional four taxa appear to have been lost from the collection. The collections are especially rich in African lacertid types and in historically significant specimens collected early in the Nineteenth Century by Pallas, Eversmann, and Hemprich & Ehrenberg. Also present are the type series of many subspecies of Podarcis lilfordi and P. pityusensis described by Eisentraut.
Bauer, A.M. & Günther, R. & Klipfel, M. (1995) -
A collection of 174 titles, world-wide in scope, and including Peters book, Reise nach Mossambique. Biography and annotated bibliography, and synopsis of species by Aaron M. Bauer, Rainer Günther, and Meghan Klipfel. 714 pages, 114 plates, 9 photographs, maps, index.
Bedriaga, J. von (1905) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1906) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1907) -
Bedriaga, J. von (1912) -
Belik, V. (2011) -
Belik, V.P. (2014) -
Research of the herpethofauna of the Lower Volga area began by academic expeditions of the 18 century.
As a result of these researches, many new species of amphibians and reptiles were described. Some of
these species descriptions are recognized as the priority ones. The earliest data on amphibians and reptiles
in the territory of the current Volgograd region were collected at the beginning of the 19 century (Kondratyev,
1885). Important data on the Sarepta amphibians and reptiles were also published by A. Becker
(1855). Later, a new viper species was described on the basis of the Sarepta materials (Christoph, 1861).
At the beginning of the 20 century, materials on amphibians and reptiles were collected by V. Kiziritsky
in the territory of the Tsaritsyn (currently Volgograd) region (1913). The results of these works are reflected
in A. M. Nikolsky`s reports (1915, 1916, and 1918). A next stage of research began in the middle
of the 20 century by works of the Stalingrad zoologists (N. A. Kosareva, B. S. Kubantsev, T. I. Zhukova,
N. N. Kolyakin, etc.). Later, zoologists from Moscow and other Russian cities conducted their research
there as well. The results of all these studies on inventory of the herpethofauna of the Volgograd region
are summarized in Professor B.S. Kubantsev’s works (1996, 2003, etc.). Now, local zoologists continue
studying the amphibian and reptile fauna of the Volgograd region. A significant contribution to our
knowledge on distribution, number and ecology of reptiles was brought by Saratov researchers. But the
herpethofauna inside a considerable territory of the Lower Volga area is still poorly studied.
Key words: amphibians, reptiles, fauna, study, history, Volgograd region, Russia.
Белик В.П. (2014) -
Изучение герпетофауны Нижнего Поволжья началось в академических экспедициях ХVIII в. В результате этих исследований было описано много новых видов амфибий и рептилий, часть из которых признана сейчас как валидными. Первые сведения о земноводных и пресмыкающихся на территории нынешней Волгоградской области были собраны в начале ХIХ в. (Кондратьев, 1885). Важные сведения о герпетофауне Сарепты опубликовал также A. Becker (1855). Позже по материалам из Сарепты был описан новый вид гадюки (Christoph, 1861). В начале ХХ в. на территории Волгоградской области герпетологические материалы собирал В. Кизирицкий (1913). Результаты этих работ содержатся в сводках А. М. Никольского (1915, 1916, 1918). Следующий этап исследований начался в середине ХХ в. работами сталинградских зоологов (Н. А. Косарева, Б. С. Кубанцев, Т. И. Жукова, Н. Н. Колякин и др.). Позже здесь проводили исследования также зоологи из Москвы и других городов России. Итоги всех этих работ по инвентаризации герпетофауны Волгоградской области подведены в ряде статей Б. С. Кубанцева (1996, 2003 и др.). Сейчас герпетофауну Волгоградской области продолжают изучать местные зоологи. Большой вклад в познание распространения, численности и экологии рептилий внесли также саратовские исследователи. Но герпетофауна значительной территории Нижнего Поволжья по-прежнему остается еще слабо изученной.
Bergmann, P.J. & Pettionelli, K.J. & Crockett, M.E. & Schaper, E.G. (2017) -
Animals must cope with and be able to move effectively on a variety of substrates. Substrates composed of granular media, such as sand and gravel, are extremely common in nature, and vary tremendously in particle size and shape. Despite many studies of the properties of granular media and comparisons of locomotion between granular and solid substrates, the effects of systematically manipulating these media on locomotion is poorly understood. We studied granular media ranging over four orders of magnitude in particle size, and differing in the amount of particle shape variation, to determine how these factors affected substrate physical properties and sprinting in the generalist lizard Eremias arguta. We found that media with intermediate particle sizes had high bulk densities, low angles of stability and low load-bearing capacities. Rock substrates with high shape variation had higher values for all three properties than glass bead substrates with low shape variation. We found that E. arguta had the highest maximum velocities and accelerations on intermediate size particles, and higher velocities on rock than glass beads. Lizards had higher stride frequencies and lower duty factors on intermediate particle size substrates, but their stride lengths did not change with substrate. Our findings suggest that sand and gravel may represent different locomotor challenges for animals. Sand substrates provide animals with an even surface for running, but particles shift underfoot. In contrast, gravel particles are heavy, so move far less underfoot, yet provide the animal with an uneven substrate.
Bettencourt Ferreira, J. (1897) -
Bi, J. & Wang, W. & Li, S. & Zeng, Z. (2015) -
Locomotor performance in lizards is strongly affected by structural habitat. Understanding this relationship allows us to predict species distributions across habitat types. However, little information is available about the ecological role of the locomotion of multiocellated racerunner (Eremias multiocellata) in the desert steppe ecosystem of Inner Mongolia, China. Herein, we studied the effects of habitat structure on the locomotor performance of this lizard species in the field. We found that the sprint speed of this lizard declined significantly with increasing vegetation coverage. Manipulative experiments were further conducted to examine the effects of branch barriers and surface substrates on the sprint speed of the lizard. We found that the sprint speed was significantly influenced by the surface substrates and branch barriers, and there were no interactions between them. Branch barriers impeded sprint speed, and E. multiocellata showed better locomotor performance on sandy rather than loamy substrates. Our results indicate that E. multiocellata tends to occupy open areas with sandy substrates, but its locomotor performance is not closely associated with habitat preference.
Bird, C.G. (1936) -
Bischoff, W. (1978) -
The final part of a series of papers on the lizards of the Caucasus, that have been published in previous years.
The paper reports on the life habits, capture and keeping in terraria of several lizards of Soviet Transcaucasia. In these respects the agamid Phrynocephalus helioscopus persi- cus and three species of the lacertid genus Eremias occuring in that area (i. e. strauchi, velox, pleskei) are discussed. Finally a !ist of all lizard species and subspecies actually known to occur in this region is given.
Bischoff, W. (1991) -
Bischoff, W. (2003) -
General remarks on Georgia as nature area and on ist herpetofauna, with discussion about ist population density. Short presentation and hints on distribution and habitats of Eremias arguta transcaucasica, E. velox caucasica, Ophisops elegans elegans, Lacerta agilis brevicaudata, L. agilis ioriensis, L. agilis grusinica, L. media media and L. strigata.
Bischoff, W. (2011) -
Bischoff, W. (2013) -
Bischoff, W. & Böhme, W. (1980) -
Biserkov, V. (2007) -
Biserkov, V. & Naumov, B. & Tsankov, N. & Stoyanov, A. & Petrov, B. &Dobrev, D. & Stoev , P. (2007) -
The current book provides a synthesis of the information concern-
ing field identification of all the species and subspecies of Amphibia
and Reptilia hitherto registered in Bulgaria. It comprises 61 species
and 23 subspecies, among which 5 species (Pelophylax lessonae, P.
kurtmuelleri, Hemidactylus turcicus, Eremias arguta, Montivipera
xanthina) that have not been found yet on the territory of the
country, but which are known from sites in proximity to Bulgar-
ian frontiers. The frogs and toads are represented with 14 spe-
cies, newts and salamanders with 6 species, turtles and tortoises
with 7 species (Trachemys scripta introduced; Caretta caretta and
Chelonia mydas considered extinct), and snakes with 19 species
(Vipera aspis and V. ursinii considered extinct). The structure of
each species’ description includes the following headings: Name,
Diagnosis, General Distribution, Distribution in Bulgaria, Habitats,
and Biology. Besides in Bulgarian and Latin, all species are sup-
plemented with their English, French, German and Russian names.
All synonyms in the main herpetological literature are listed after
the currently accepted Latin name. Original keys for identification
of the families, genera and species, based entirely on morphologi-
cal characters of adult specimens, as well as on the structure of
amphibians’ eggs and larvae, are elaborated to facilitate the users.
A photo gallery, comprising original colour photos shot in nature,
and numerous line drawings of different key characters are made
for better distinction between the species. For purely conservation-
al reasons, the distribution maps not only indicate the scientifically
confirmed species distribution in the country, but also show the
areas with suitable habitats where a given species is likely to oc-
cur. The degree of suitability is indicated with a different degree
of shading: optimal (black); suboptimal (80% gray); suitable (60%
gray); less suitable (20% gray); white means unsuitable. The guide
is also introducing the readers to some general aspects of the tax-
onomy, systematics, morphology, biology and ecology of herpeto-
fauna. Special chapters are devoted to the methods of observation
and capture of amphibians and reptiles, first aid after a snake’s
bite, and the relationship between herpetofauna – humans. The
status of each species according to main biodiversity conservation
acts and conventions is given in Table 1. Being the first publication
of its kind, the book is intended for professional herpetologists,
students or nature lovers.
Blackburn, D.G. (1982) -
Reproductive mode data were extracted piecemeal from the literature and superimposed over currently accepted phylogenies to permit estimation of the minimum frequencies with which viviparity (live-bearing) has evolved in lizards, aswell as to facilitateanalysisoffactors hypothesizedto inlluencethis evolution. Viviparity has arisen on at least 45 separate occasions in the Sauria. Each ofthese origins is pinpointed phylogeneticallyas far as is now possible. Ofthese origins, 22 have occurred in the Scincidae, ten in the Iguanidae, five in the Anguidae, two each in the Lacertidae and Gekkonidae, and one each in the Chamaeleontidae, Xantusiidae, Agamidae, and Cordylidae. Further origins may be detected in the Scincidae, Iguanidae, and Diploglossa as phylogenetic relationships are elucidated. Over 19 % of the saurian species are live-bearing, and about 2/3 of the viviparous species are skinks. Most of the sub-generic saurian origins ofviviparity have occurred in cold climates, possibly as an adaptation to facilitate maternal thermoregulation of the developing embryos. Phylogenetic distributions of these origins are consistent with hypotheses that genetic sex-determination of the male-heterogametic type as weil as a tendency towards egg`retention preadapt a lineage for viviparity. Evolution of the live-bearing mode may be constrained by temperature-dependent sex determination, female heterogamety, and formation of highly calcified eggshells.
Blanford, W.T. (1874) -
Blanford, W.T. (1875) -
Blanford, W.T. (1876) -
Blanford, W.T. (1878) -
Bobrov, V.V. (1986) -
Bobrov, V.V. (2018) -
Bodenheimer, F.S. (1944) -
Boettger, O. (1880) -
Boettger, O. (1885) -
Boettger, O. (1888) -
Boettger, O. (1893) -
Böhme, W. (2010) -
In the herpetological collection of ZFMK 528 scientific species group names are represented by type materi- al. Of these, 304 names are documented by primary type specimens (onomatophores) while for 224 further names sec- ondary type specimens (typoids) are available, ranging chronologically from 1801 to 2010. The list is a shortened pred- ecessor of a comprehensive type catalogue in progress. It lists name bearing types with their catalogue numbers includ- ing information on further type series members also in other institutions, while secondary types are listed only by pres- ence, both in ZFMK and other collections including holotype repositories. Geographic origin and currently valid names are also provided.
Böhme, W. & Bischoff, W. (1984) -
Böhme, W. & Szczerbak, N. N. (1991) -
By the PAAG electrophoretic spectra of Coomassi-stained 61-73 bands from 4 “tissues” (heart, skeletal muscle, kidney, liver proteins) for each of 17 specimens representing at least 3 or 4 species, (Eremias vermiculata Blanf., E. przewalskii Str., E. sp. and E. multiocellata Gunther) were compared.Most of the specimens were collected in Mongolia. Their tree, based on several measures of genetic distances, showed the order of the species listed above, with E. sp., the closest to the point of divergency, and situated between E. przewalskii and the specimen of E. multiocellata from several localities and biotypes. The genetic similarity of the biotypes of the last species is discussed in regard with other data on the body size and proportion, pholidosis, coloration.
By the PAAG electrophoretic spectra of Coomassi-stained 61-73 bands from 4 “tissues” (heart, skeletal muscle, kidney, liver proteins) for each of 17 specimens representing at least 3 or 4 species, (Eremias vermiculite Blanf., E. przewalskii Str., E. sp. and E. multiocellata Gunther) were compared. Most of the specimens were collected in Mongolia. Their tree, based on several measures of genetic distances, showed the order of the species listed above, with E. sp., the closest to the point of divergency, and situated between E. przewalskii and the specimen of E. multiocellata from several localities and biotypes. The genetic similarity of the biotypes of the last species is discussed in regard with other data on the body size and proportion, pholidosis, coloration.
Bonaparte, C.L. (1839) -
Bondarenko, D.A. (2020) -
In 2018–2019, isolated sandy habitats in the Ferghana oasis were surveyed. The reptile communities in the sands had a similar structure and very high population density, reaching up to 144 ind./ha. In all habi- tats, two racerunner species absolutely predominated, namely, Eremias velox and Eremias scripta, which accounted from 56.9 to 94.5% of the total abundance. In some habitats the dominants included Rusta- mov’s plate-tailed gecko and Strauch’s toad-headed agama. Three endemic lizard species (Phrynocephalus strauchi, Eremias scripta pherganensis, and Teratoscincus scincus rustamowi) had high population density and were classified as common or numerous. They accounted for an average of 52% (34–74%) of the total reptile abundance. The relationship among reptiles and their distribution in their biotopes were described. The current status of the habitats was assessed and few factors affecting the number of reptiles were considered. Due to plowing and watering, the area of sand habitats has decreased by 3.7 times since 1960 (down to about 180 km2). The only protected area (the Yazyavan natural monu- ment) is not enough to maintain the biodiversity of these isolated desert habitats. It is necessary to enlarge the protected area by including several large massifs in several parts of the Fergana Valley. The total area of refuges in this case will be about 95 km2.
Бондаренко, Д.А. (2020) -
2018 – 2019 гг. обследованы изолированные песчаные местообитания Ферганского оазиса. Сообщества прес- мыкающихся песков имели сходную структуру и очень высокую плотность населения, доходившую до 144 особ./ га. Во всех местообитаниях абсолютно доминировали два вида ящурок – Eremias velox и Eremias scripta, на ко- торых в сумме пришлось от 56.9 до 94.5% от общего обилия. В некоторых местообитаниях к доминантам присое- динялись сцинковый геккон Рустамова и круглоголовка Штрауха. Три эндемичных вида ящериц (Phrynocephalus strauchi, Eremias scripta pherganensis, Teratoscincus scincus rustamowi) имели высокую плотность населения и отнесены к обычным или многочисленным видам. На них пришлось в среднем 52% (34 – 74%) от общего обилия пресмыкающихся. Описано взаимоотношение пресмыкающихся и их распределение по биотопам. Проведена оценка современного состояния местообитаний и рассмотрены факторы, влияющие на численность пресмы- кающихся. Из-за распахивания и обводнения площадь песчаных местообитаний сократилась с 1960 г. в 3.7 раза и составляет около 180 км2. Единственной охраняемой территории (природного памятника «Язъяван») недоста- точно для поддержания биоразнообразия изолированных пустынных местообитаний. Необходимо увеличить площадь охраняемой территории за счет включения в нее нескольких крупных массивов в разных районах Ферганской долины. Общая площадь рефугиумов составит в этом случае около 95 км2.
Bondarenko, D.A. & Ergashev, U.H. (2022) -
Population density of reptiles in four desert areas of southwestern Tajikistan was es- timated in spring 2018–2019. The structure of reptile communities in seven typical landscapes was described. The highest species diversity and population density were observed in sandy landscapes. Seven species of psammobionts formed the basis of these reptile communities. Among them Phrynocephalus interscapularis (56.4), Crossobamon eversmanni (27.8), Eremias lineolata (15.6), Eremias scripta (13.0) had the highest distribution and high population density (individuals/hectare). The relationship of cohabitating species was considered. The highest total population density of reptiles (89.0 ind./ha) was discovered on sandy ridges along the Amu Darya. On the loamy plain the population density of four species was 8.4 ind./ha, and on the foothill plain 2.4 ind./ha. Eremias nigrocellata (2.0 ind./ha) dominated in reptile communities on solid ground. In total, 25 species of reptiles inhabit the desert plains of Southwestern Tajiki- stan. 17 out of 25 (68%) species are included in the national Red Data Book. The level of en- demism and similarity of reptile fauna in desert areas were high. Fauna similarity indices calcu- lated according to Sørensen were 0.9–0.8. These values indicate close contact and connection between desert communities. The formation of the reptile fauna in southwestern Tajikistan oc- curred as a result of dispersal of Turanian species across the left bank of the Amu Darya River from Turkmenistan. They moved to the right bank due to the changes in the riverbed at the Pleistocene Epoch. The absence of some reptile species (Teratoscincus scincus, C. eversmanni, Phrynocephalus mystaceus, E. lineolata, Eremias grammica, E. scripta, etc.) in Northern Af- ghanistan along the border with Tajikistan is explained by the lack of herpetological study of this territory. Their habitat in the area is highly probable. Isolation and autonomy of desert are- as in the Amu Darya valley create the opportunity for formation of new taxonomic forms. Ex- amples are lizards E. scripta ladzinni and P. interscapularis sogdianus. The desert plains of Southwest Tajikistan have a small area and are subjected to significant anthropogenic pressure. Protection of small species, including lizards (Phrynocephalus raddei, P. mystaceus, Varanus griseus) and snakes (Eryx tataricus, Spalerosophis diadema, Boiga trigonatum, Naja oxiana, Echis carinatus) is needed. For widespread and numerous psammobiont species (P. interscapu- laris, E. lineolata, E. grammica, E. scripta, C. eversmanni) there is no threat of extermination at the moment.
Д. А. Бондаренко & У. Х. Эргашев (2022) -
Весной 2018 – 2019 гг. проведена оценка плотности населения пресмыкаю- щихся в четырех пустынных районах Юго-Западного Таджикистана. Описана структура сообществпресмыкающихсявсемитипичныхландшафтах.Наибольшеевидовоераз- нообразие и плотность их населения отмечены в песчаных ландшафтах. Основу этих со- обществ пресмыкающихся составили семь псаммобионтных видов. Из них наибольшее распространение и высокую плотность населения (особ./га) имели Phrynocephalus inter- scapularis (56.4), Crossobamon eversmanni (27.8), Eremias lineolata (15.6), Eremias scripta (13.0). Рассмотрено взаимоотношение совместно обитающих видов. Наибольшая общая плотность населения пресмыкающихся (89.0 особ./га) выявлена на песчаных грядах вдоль Амударьи. На суглинистой равнине плотность населения четырех видов составила 8.4 особ./га, а на подгорной равнине – 2.4 особ./га. В сообществах пресмыкающихся на плотном грунте доминировала Eremias nigrocellata (2.0 особ./га). Всего на пустынных рав- нинах Юго-Западного Таджикистана установлено обитание 25 видов пресмыкающихся. Из них 17 (68%) видов занесены в национальную Красную книгу. Уровень эндемизма и сходство фауны пресмыкающихся пустынных районов оказались высокими. Индексы сходства фауны (по Сёренсену) составили 0.9 – 0.8. Эти значения указывают на тесный контакт и связь пустынных сообществ. Формирование фауны пресмыкающихся Юго-За- падного Таджикистана произошло в результате расселения туранских видов вверх по ле- вобережью Амударьи со стороны Туркменистана. На правый берег они перешли в резуль- тате изменения русла реки в плейстоценовую эпоху. Отсутствие находок некоторых видов пресмыкающихся (Teratoscincus scincus, C. eversmanni, Phrynocephalus mystaceus, E. lineo- lata, Eremias grammica, E. scripta и др.) в Северном Афганистане вдоль границы с Таджи- кистаном объясняются недостаточной изученностью территории. Их обитание на ней вы- соко вероятно. Изоляция и автономность пустынных районов в долине р. Амударьи соз- дают предпосылки для образования новых таксономических форм. Примером являются обитающие здесь ящерицы E. scripta ladzinni и P. interscapularis sogdianus. Пустынные рав- нины Юго-Западного Таджикистана имеют небольшую площадь и подвергаются значи- тельной антропогенной нагрузке. В защите особенно нуждаются малочисленные виды, к которым относятся некоторые ящерицы (Phrynocephalus raddei, P. mystaceus, Varanus griseus) и змеи (Eryx tataricus, Spalerosophis diadema, Boiga trigonatum, Naja oxiana, Echis carinatus). Для широко распространенных и многочисленных псаммобионтных видов, таких как P. interscapularis, E. lineolata, E. grammica, E. scripta, C. eversmanni, угроза истребления пока отсутствует.
Bondarenko, D.A. & Peregontsev, E.A. (2018) -
Terrestrial route counts of reptiles in 24 localities of the plateau Ustyurt were carried out in 2007 – 2008.
474 individuals of 15 species were found along a total of 243.5 km passed. Based on the results of our
survey, the reptile population structure has been clarified in 12 landscapes. The low specific diversity and
population density of reptiles were observed everywhere. 2 to 8 species with a population density of 1.9 –
8.4 individuals per ha were found in certain landscapes. In terms of abundance, the reptiles belonged to
rare or common species. The steppe agama Trapelus sanguinolentus and the Central Asian tortoise
Agrionemys horsfieldii were the most abundant. Four racerunner species (Eremias) had a pronounced
confinement to various types of substrate, which allowed them to occupy the dominant position in the
landscapes by numbers. Four main landscape complexes of reptile communities were identified, which
changed zonally in the latitudinal direction. The attitude of the reptiles to their environmental conditions
is discussed. The plasticity of the Eremias species to substrates is estimated, and to distinguish its types is
Бондаренко Д. А. & Перегонцев Е. А. (2018) -
2007 – 2008 гг. проведены маршрутные учеты пресмыкающихся в 24 пунктах плато Устюрт. Всего пройдено
243.5 км, на которых встречено 474 особи 15 видов.По результатам учета выяснена структура населения пресмы-
кающихся в 12 ландшафтах. Повсеместно наблюдалось низкое видовое разнообразие и плотность населения
пресмыкающихся.Вотдельных ландшафтах отмечено от 2 до 8 видов при плотности населения 1.9 – 8.4 особ./га.
По уровню обилия пресмыкающиеся относились к редким или обычным видам. Наиболее распространенными
из них оказались степная агама и среднеазиатская черепаха . 4 вида
ящурок ( ) имели выраженную приуроченность к различным типам субстрата, позволявшую занимать в
ландшафтах доминирующее положение по численности. Выделено 4 основных ландшафтных комплекса сооб-
ществ населения пресмыкающихся, которые сменяются зонально в широтном направлении. Обсуждается отно-
шение пресмыкающихся к условиям среды. Оценивается пластичность видов к субстратам с предложе-
нием различать ее типы.
Borkin, L.J. (1986) -
Borkin, L.J. & Litvinchuk, S.N. & Rosano, Y.M. (1997) -
The hybrid Rana esculenta (diploid) is first recorded for Moldavia. Bombina variegata was previously
confused with B. bombina, as well as Rana dalmatina was confused with the long-legged R. arvalis. The
first confirmed locality of Lacerta vivipara is given. The occurrence of Eremias arguta in Moldavia is
mentioned. The check-list of 12 species of amphibians and 15 species of reptiles of Moldavia is published.
Borkin, L.Ya. & Darevsky, I.S. (1987) -
Боркин Л.Я. & Даревский И.С. (1987) -
Bosch, H.A.J. in den (2003) -
The physical geography of Iraq is summarised. Using data from the relevant literature and current information from the Internet, a very provisional checklist of Iraqi amphibians and reptiles is presented. Ten amphibian species are reported for Iraq, and exactly 100 reptile species.
Bosch, H.A.J. in den & Bischoff, W. (2004) -
Many regions of the former USSR still re- ceive little attention from Western visitors, herpetologists not excluded. For the Cau- casus Mountains this is all the more sur- prising since the area forms a zone where northern and Middle Eastern flora and fauna meet, and which is thus of considera- bly zoogeographical interest.
Presently we find three larger states in the Caucasus: Georgia, Azerbaijan and Arme- nia. Turkey borders to the southwest, Iran to the southeast, and in the north it is the Russian federation. Various smaller parts claim independence. The Black Sea forms the natural western boundary, the Caspian Sea the eastern one.
Herpetologically the Caucasus is historically well-known because of the work of Darev- sky and collaborators on the rock lizards (at the time still in the large genus Lacerta, now in Darevskia) and the discovery of the first case of parthenogenesis in vertebrates (DAREVSKY, 1967; DAREVSKII, 1978; DAREVSKY & KULIKOVA, 1961).
Below we will concentrate on the results of our field trip to Georgia during the last two weeks of June 2003. Predictably, because of our common interest in the group, the lacertids will receive the most attention.
Boulenger, G.A. (1887) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1889) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1890) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1913) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1918) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1920) -
Boulenger, G.A. (1921) -
Bozhansky, A.T. (2005) -
Brown, R.P. (2005) -
A phylogenetic-comparative approach was used to assess and refine existing secondary structure models for a frequently studied region of the mitochondrial encoded large subunit (16S) rRNA in two large lizard lineages within the Scincomorpha, namely the Scincidae and the Lacertidae. Potential pairings and mutual information were analyzed to identify site interactions present within each lineage and provide consensus secondary structures. Many of the interactions proposed by previous models were supported, but several refinements were possible. The consensus structures allowed a detailed analysis of rRNA sequence evolution. Phylogenetic trees were inferred from Bayesian analyses of all sites, and the topologies used for maximum likelihood estimation of sequence evolution parameters. Assigning gamma-distributed relative rate categories to all interacting sites that were homologous between lineages revealed substantial differences between helices. In both lineages, sites within helix G2 were mostly conserved, while those within helix E18 evolved rapidly. Clear evidence of substantial site-specific rate variation (covarion-like evolution) was also detected, although this was not strongly associated with specific helices. This study, in conjunction with comparable findings on different, higher-level taxa, supports the ubiquitous nature of site-specific rate variation in this gene and justifies the incorporation of covarion models in phylogenetic inference.
Buehler, M.D. & Zoljargal, P. & Purvee, E. & Munkhbayar, K. & Munkhbaatar, M. & Batsaikhan, N. & Ananjeva, N.B. & Orlov, N.L. & Papenfuss, T.J. & Roldán-Pina, D. & Grismer, D.L.L. & Oaks, J.R. & Brown, R.M. & Grismer, J.L. (2021) -
The National University of Mongolia, the Mongolian State University of Education, the University of Nebraska, and the University of Kansas conducted four collaborative expeditions between 2010 and 2014, resulting in accounts for all species of lacertid and agamid, except Phrynocephalus kulagini. These expeditions resulted in a range extension for Eremias arguta and the collection of specimens and tissues across 134 unique localities. In this paper we summarize the species of the Agamidae (Paralaudakia stoliczkana, Ph. hispidus, Ph. helioscopus, and Ph. versicolor) and Lacertidae (E. argus, E. arguta, E. dzungarica, E. multiocellata, E. przewalskii, and E. vermiculata) that were collected during these four expeditions. Further, we provide a summary of all species within these two families in Mongolia. Finally, we discuss issues of Wallacean and Linnaean shortfalls for the herpetofauna of the Mongolian Gobi Desert, and provide future directions for studies of community assemblages and population genetics of reptile species in the region.
Burrage, B.R. (1978) -
A collection of reptiles and new locality records are reported from the littoral Southern Namib Desert, Northwestern Cape Province, Republic of South Africa. The new localities, by species, are: Chersina angulata, Swartlintjies River; Chondrodactylus angulifer, Swartlintjies River and Kleinsee; Agama atra, Papendorp, Swartlintjies River, and Kleinsee; Chamaeleo pumilus, MacDougall`s Bay; Mabuya occidentalis, Hondeklipbaal, Swartlintjies River, and Kleinsee; Acontias lineatus, Hondeklipbaal; Nucras tessellata, Kleinsee, and MacDougall`s Bay; Eremias capensis, Papendorp, Hondeklipbaal, and Kleinsee; Meroles knoxii, Elandsbaal; Meroles ctenodactyla, Papendorp, and Kleinsee; Psammophylax rhombeatus, Elandsbaal; Psammophis crucifer, Elandsbaal; and Naja nivea, Kreefbaal, and Kleinsee, 1978.
Cai, B. & Ji, X. & Wang, Y. & Rao, D. & Huang, S. & Wang, Y. & Song, Z. & Guo, X. & Jiang, J. (2022) -
From the perspectives of biodiversity conservation and management, there is an urgent need to have at hand current synopses of classification and distributions of species. In this paper, we review and summarize the classifications, Chinese and English names, type specimens, type localities and distributions of China’s lizard fauna to promote scientific exchange and species conservation among relevant people in China and internationally. As of December 31, 2020, a total of 230 species of lizard, belonging to 44 genera and 12 families, have been recorded from China, including 4 invasive species: 2 in the family Gekkonidae, 1 in Iguanidae and one in Dactyloidae. There are 115 endemic species, accounting for 50% of this group. The proportion of endemic species to China was the highest in the family Eublepharidae (84.62%), and the number of endemic species to China was the highest in the family Agamidae (42 species). The species distributions and classification in the “Fauna Sinica (Reptilia 2): Squamata (Lacertilia)” were updated. Among the provincial administrative units, there is a larger number of species in the southern provinces, such as Yunnan, Guangdong, Guangxi and Taiwan. Sichuan, Yunnan, and Taiwan harbour relatively more endemic species than others. A total of 154 species of lizards were first discovered in China, and the type localities of these species are concentrated in Yunnan, Taiwan, Tibet, Xinjiang, and Sichuan.
Casimir, M.J. (1970) -
Casimir, M.J. (1971) -
Castilla, A.M. & Van Damme, R. & Bauwens, D. (1999) -
We discuss three aspects of the thermal biology of lacertid lizards. First, we provide an overview
of the available data on field body temperatures (Tb), the thermal sensitivity of various performance
functions and selected body temperatures in different species of lacertid lizards. We also
briefly summarise information on the mechanisms of thermoregulation. Second, we discuss recent
developments to estimate the »precision« of thermoregulation, and the contribution of distinct behavioural
mechanisms. Finally, we revise available evidence for the existence of evolutionary adjustments
of thermal characteristics in lacertid lizards. Existing studies have mainly dealt with
within- and among-species differences in thermoregulatory behaviour (selected temperatures) and
thermal physiology of adults (optimal temperatures, heating rates). Available data provide only
limited evidence for clear-cut evolutionary shifts in thermal physiology characteristics along climatic
Chang, J. & Hao, W. & Xu, YX. & Xu, P. & Li, W. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2018) -
The disturbance of the thyroid system and elimination of chiral pyrethroid pesticides with respect to enantioselectivity in reptiles have so far received limited attention by research. In this study, bioaccumulation, thyroid gland lesions, thyroid hormone levels, and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis-related gene expression in male Eremias argus were investigated after three weeks oral administration of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) enantiomers. In the lizard liver, the concentration of LCT was negatively correlated with the metabolite-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) level during 21 days of exposure. (+)-LCT exposure induced a higher thyroid follicular epithelium height than (−)-LCT exposure. The thyroxine levels were increased in both treated groups while only (+)-LCT exposure induced a significant change in the triiodothyronine (T3) level. In addition, the expressions of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis-related genes including thyroid hormone receptors (trs), deiodinases (dios), uridinediphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (udp), and sulfotransferase (sult) were up-regulated after exposure to the two enantiomers. (+)-LCT treatment resulted in higher expression of trs and (−)-LCT exposure led to greater stimulation of dios in the liver, which indicated PBA-induced antagonism on thyroid hormone receptors and LCT-induced disruption of thyroxine (T4) deiodination. The results suggest the (−)-LCT exposure causes higher residual level in lizard liver while induces less disruption on lizard thyroid activity than (+)-LCT.
Chang, J. & Li, J. & Hao, W. & Wang, H. & Li, W. & Guo, B. & Li, J. & Wa, Y. & Xu, P. (2018) -
Dermal exposure is regarded as a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticides uptake in terrestrial reptiles. In this study, a native Chinese lizard was exposed to control, diflubenzuron or flufenoxuron contaminated soil (1.5 mg kg−1) for 35 days. Tissue distribution, liver lesions, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of most target genes were examined. The half-lives of diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron in the soil were 118.9 and 231.8 days, respectively. The accumulation of flufenoxuron in the liver, brain, kidney, heart, plasma and skin (1.4–35.4 mg kg−1) were higher than that of diflubenzuron (0–1.7 mg kg−1) at all time points. The skin permeability factor of flufenoxuron was more than 20-fold greater than that of diflubenzuron at the end of exposure. However, the liver was more vulnerable in the diflubenzuron exposure group. The alterations of triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) level after diflubenzuron or flufenoxuron exposure were accompanied with the changes in the transcription of target genes involved not only in hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis (sult, dio2, trα and udp) but also in metabolism system (cyp1a and ahr). These results indicated that flufenoxuron produced greater body burdens to lizards through dermal exposure, whereas both diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron have the potential to disturb metabolism and thyroid endocrine system.
Chang, J. & Li, J. & Wang, H. & Wang, Y. & Guo, B. & Yin, J. & Hao, EW. & Li, W. & Li, J. & Xu, P. (2016) -
Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) is a widely used pyrethroid with neurotoxicity. However, little is known about the toxicokinetics of LCT in reptiles. In this study, the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of LCT in Chinese lizards (Eremias Argus) were determined following a single dose (10 mg kg−1) treatment. In the liver, brain, gonads and skin, LCT levels peaked within several hours and then decreased rapidly. However, the concentration of LCT gradually increased in the fat tissue. More than 90% of the LCT dose was excreted in the faeces. One LCT metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA), was detected in lizard plasma and tissues. PBA preferentially accumulates in the brain and plasma. The half-life of PBA in the brain was 3.2 days, which was 35.4-fold greater than that of LCT. In the plasma, the concentration of PBA was significantly higher than that of LCT. The bioaccumulation of LCT in tissues was enantioselective, and the enantiomeric fractions (EF) ranged from 0.72 to 0.26. The preferential accumulation of enantiomers changed according to exposure time, but the reasons behind this phenomenon were not clear. For pathological analysis, vacuolation of the cytoplasm and large areas of necrosis were observed in the liver sections after 168 h of dosing. The liver tissues exhibited both decreases in the hepatosomatic index and histopathological lesions during the exposure period. In this study, the effect concentration of LCT in lizards was 200-fold lower than its LD50 value used in risk assessments for birds. These results may provide additional information for the risk assessment of LCT for reptiles and indicate that birds may not be an ideal surrogate for reptile toxicity evaluation.
Chang, J. & Li, W. & Gio, B. & Xu, P. & Wang, Y. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2017) -
Flufenoxuron is a widely used pesticide to inhibit the synthesis of chitin during insect development and its effect on the growth of lizards has been little addressed. The hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis plays an important role on the development of lizards. In this study, the lizards at different development stages (proliferation and resting stages) were exposed to flufenoxuron for 21 days. The plasma thyroid hormone levels, thyroid gland histopathology and expression profiles of thyroid hormone receptors (trα, trβ), deiodinases (dio1, dio2), and transthyretin (ttr) genes were measured to evaluated the toxic effect of flufenoxuron on the HPT axis at different stages. The flufenoxuron exposure showed more seriously effect on the triiodothyronine (T3) level at resting phase than that at proliferation stage. The follicle epithelium cell height in the thyroid was only significantly increased when the exposed male lizards were at proliferation stage. The alteration of HPT axis-related genes expression was gender and tissue dependent after flufenoxuron treatment. The lizards exposed to flufenoxuron showed that the trα, trβ, dio1, dio2, and ttr genes in the female liver were more sensitive at the proliferation stage than that at the resting stage. In the male brain, the expressions of trα, trβ, dio1, and dio2 gene were significant decreased at proliferation stage while significant increased at resting stage after flufenoxuron exposure. Therefore, the thyroid endocrine system of lizards could be affected by the flufenoxuron exposure and the different development stage should also be considered when study the toxic effect of contaminants on the lizards.
Chang, J. & Li, W. & Xu, P. & Guo, B. & Wang, H. (2018) -
More and more studies are focusing on toxic effect of pesticides on lizards. However, the responses of different life-stage lizards to pesticides have not been reported. In this study, according to RNA-seq library data, thyroxine 5′-deiodinase activity showed significant difference between mature and immature lizard liver. In addition, triiodothyronine (T3) level in immature lizard serum was higher than that in mature lizard serum. Thus, we investigated the thyroid disruption of flufenoxuron with different concentrations (0, 5, 20 mg/kg) to both mature lizards and their offspring. No significant differences were observed in immature lizard body weight compared between control and exposure groups while the body weight of mature lizards was significantly decreased after flufenoxuron exposure. Moreover, the levels of thyroid hormones and the expression of thyroid related genes changed with exposure concentration of flufenoxuron and exhibited different regulation mechanism between mature and immature lizards. In immature lizard liver, trα, trβ, dio1 and ugt genes controlled the thyroid hormone levels interfered by flufenoxuron. In contrast, the thyroxine (T4) pathway in mature lizard liver was significantly disrupted especially by 20 mg/kg flufenoxuron exposure. This study elucidated the different thyroid disruption effects of flufenoxuron to lizards based on different exposure doses and lizard life stages.
Chang, J. & Li, W. & Xu, P. & Guo, B. & Wang, Y. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2017) -
Benzoylurea pesticides (BPUs) are widely used to control the locust, but the toxicokinetics and hepatotoxicity of BPUs in lizards have not been investigated. In this study, the tissue distribution, metabolism and liver toxicity of diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron were assessed in the Eremias argus following a single oral exposure. Diflubenzuron preferred to accumulate in the fat and brain (>1.0 mg kg−1) and was rapidly eliminate in other tissues. In the liver, 4-chloroaniline was one of diflubenzuron metabolites, although with a concentration less than 0.05% of the accumulated diflubenzuron. No significant difference was observed in the liver histopathology between the control and diflubenzuron exposure group. The expressions of Cyp1a and Ahr gene which control the cell apoptosis were also equal to the control level. After flufenoxuron exposure, biomodal phenomenon was observed in the liver, skin, brain, gonad, kidney, heart and blood circulation was an important route for the flufenoxuron penetration. The concentrations of flufenoxuron in all tissues were greater than 1.0 mg kg−1 at 168 h. The excretion of flufenoxuron in the faeces was 1.5 fold higher than diflubenzuron. The hepatocytes in the flufenoxuron treated group showed vacuolation of cytoplasm and decreased nucleus. In addition, the Cyp1a and Ahr genes were significantly up-regulated in the flufenoxuron exposure group. These results suggested that the higher hepatotoxicity of flufenoxuron may be attributed to the higher residual level in the lizard tissues and the Cyp1a and Ahr genes can serve as biomarkers to assess the liver toxicity.
Chang, J. & Pan, Y. & Liu, W. & Xie, Y. & Hao, W. & Xu, P. & Wang, Y. (2021) -
Reptiles are sensitive to temperature changes as ectotherm animals. The climate warming may pose more serious threat to reptiles. Although the behavior effect and reproduction biology have been well studied, little information is available about the adaptation mechanisms of reptiles to temperature stress. In this study, the native Chinese species, Eremias argus were incubated at 15 (cold stress), 25 (control group) and 35 C (thermal stress) for 24 h. The transcriptome and metabolome technology were applied to investigate the molecular regulation mechanisms of lizards to acute temperature changes. The CIRBP and HSPA8 were hub genes in response to temperature adaptation. The increased expression of PER gene in lizard circadian rhythm is associated with tyrosine metabolism after cold or thermal stress. The poly-unsaturated fatty acids in female lizard liver were significantly increased with up-regulation of FASN and ACACA genes after thermal stress, which proved the disruption of fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in corporation with the altered body weight. The cortisol and testosterone were important steroid hormones in response to temperature changes especially in male lizard liver. The increased CIRBP gene expression in lizard gonads suppressed the KDM6B gene, which regulates the testis development and may induce sex reversal in male lizard after thermal stress. The adaptation responses of lizards to temperature stress may threaten the health status of wild population.
Chang, J. & Pan, Y. & Liu, W. & Xu, P. & Li, W. & Wan, B. (2021) -
Although the thyroid effects of pyrethroids on non-target organisms have been well studied, research on the toxic effects of pyrethorid metabolites is still limited. In this study, a type of representative Chinese lizards was used as the model and exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) through cultivation on 3 and 15 μg/g soil to evaluate and compare their disruption effects on lizard hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. The alterations occurred in lizards were examined through histopathology analyses, hormone level and gene expression measurements, the molecular binding interactions were analyzed in silico as well. The results showed that LCT exposure increased the plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) levels and the follicular epithelium heights of thyroid glands, whereas PBA induced no or much less degree of alterations. The ugt and dio2 gene expression in lizard liver was significantly up-regulated by LCT, but PBA caused less or opposite effects. The in silico homology simulation illustrated that LCT binds to TRα in the similar way of T3, while PBA binds to TRβ in the same manner of T3. The results demonstrated that both LCT and its metabolite-PBA could disrupt lizard HPT axis but through distinct mechanisms. The information would facilitate the comprehensive environmental safety assessment of pyrethroids.
Chang, J. & Pan, Y. & Yang, L. & Xie, Y. & Xu, P. & Wang, H. (2020) -
Chang, J. & Wang, H. & Xu, P. & Guo, B. & Li, J. & Wang, Y. & Li, W. (2017) -
Diflubenzuron (DFB) is a potential endocrine-disrupting chemical. However, its thyroid endocrine effect on reptiles has not been reported. In this study, immature lizards (Eremias argus) were exposed to 20 mg kg−1 DFB once a week for 42 days through oral or dermal routes. Their body weight, plasma thyroid hormone levels, thyroid gland histology and the transcription of hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis-related genes in different tissues were assessed to explore the effects of DFB on the HPT axis of lizards. The body weight decreased significantly only after the dermal exposure to DFB. Triiodothyronine (T3) to thyroxine (T4) ratio in the male plasma also significantly increased after the dermal exposure. After oral exposure, the activity of thyroid gland was positively related to the thyroid hormone levels. Furthermore, the alterations in thyroid hormone levels affected the HPT axis-related gene expression, which was tissue dependent and sexually selected. The thyroid hormone receptor genes (trα and trβ) in the brain and thyroid were more sensitive to oral exposure. However, only the dermal treatment affected the trα, trβ and type 2 deiodinase (dio2) genes in the male liver. These results suggest that DFB exposure caused sex-specific changes in the thyroid function of lizards, and the dermal treatment may be an important route for the risk assessment of reptiles.
Chang, J. & Xu, P. & Li, W. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2019) -
In this study, the different metabolic pathways of lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) enantiomers in Eremias argus feces and enantioselective disruption on hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) system were investigated. After 7 days oral exposure to LCT enantiomers, the concentration of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA), hydroxylated and sulfated LCT were higher in the (+)-LCT exposure group than that in the (−)-LCT exposure group, which indicated a higher metabolic rate of (+)-LCT than (−)-LCT. Although no significant differences were seen on lizard body weight after enantiomers’ exposure, the gonadosomatic index was dramatically decreased. The testicular impacts such as increased seminiferous tubule diameters were only observed in the (+)-LCT exposure group. Consistent with this result, the expression of ar gene in the (+)-LCT exposure was significantly higher than that in the (−)-LCT exposure group. In addition, the stronger binding affinity of AR with (+)-LCT further demonstrated the more serious disruption of (+)-LCT on lizard HPG axis than (−)-LCT. This study first elucidated the metabolic pathway and endocrine effects of LCT in lizards at enantiomeric level and provided some evidence for lizard population decline.
Chang, M.H. & Oh, H.S. (2012) -
This study was conducted to find the sexual size dimorphism(SSD) in morphometric characters of three species , Eremias argus, Takydromus amurensis and T. wolteri in lacertid lizard from Korea. Six external traits, snout‐vent length, tail length, head length, head width, forelimb length and hind-limb length were focused to compare two sexes among the each three lizards. Student`s t‐test was used to compare the adult SVL between the sexes for each species. For the other parts of the body, a one‐way analysis of covariance(ANCOVA) with SVL as the covariate was used. In all these species, males have longer tail and head than females like general lacertid lizard. In addition, male E. arugus have broader head and longer forelimbs and hind-limbs than conspecific females. Likewise, male T. wolteri have broader head than females. In the three lacertid lizards from Korea, snout‐vent length did not significantly differ between the sexes. To understand the causes for SSD in SVL, ecological information, such as the presence/absence of male-male combat and the correlation between the SVL of female and litter size, is required. Therefore, further ecological study on the three species of lacertid lizard from Korea will make it possible to explain the reason SSD is not found in SVL.
Chang, M.H. & Song, J.Y. & Koo, K.S. (2021) -
The endangered species Mongolian racerunner (Eremias Argus), with a limited distribution in South Korea, is found only in sanddunes near waterside and forests. Therefore, species trends in this particular habitat are directly affected by habitat contaminationand destruction. In this study, we examined the effects of coastal sand dune restoration on the distribution and population ofE. argus. We conducted a field survey in Baramarye special protection zone, called Baramarye Coast, a part of the TaeanhaeanNational Park, during April and June 2016. We searched and recorded the location ofE. argusand tagged them using the toeclipping method. The size of theE. arguspopulation was estimated using the Peterson method. After the restoration of coastalsand dunes in Baramarye Coast, the population size ofE. argusincreased by 126–137 (21.1–55.7%) compared with that in 2008.The home range ofE. argusin coastal sand dunes was significantly expanded by 4.8-fold for 95% Kernel density (KD) and 3.6-fold for 50% KD compared with that in 2008. Moreover, we confirmed that the distribution ofE. arguswas expanded to therestored area. Our study showed that in situ conservation is effective for endangeredE. argus,distributed in particular environ-ments such as coastal region. This study provides one more reason why coastal region must be conserved.
Chen, D. & Su, X. & Liu, J. & Guo, X. (2019) -
The Variegated Racerunner, Eremias vermiculata, is widespread in Northwest China, southern Mongolia, and Zaisan Basin of Kazakhstan. In this study, a nearly complete mitochondrial genome (17,972 bp in length) of E. vermiculata from the Dunhuang Basin in Northwest China was determined by next-generation sequencing. Similar to the typical mtDNA of vertebrates, it contained two ribosomal RNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, and one control region (CR). With exception to the CR, all of the 37 genes were completely recovered. The concatenated PCGs were used to conduct Bayesian phylogenetic analyses together with mitogenome data of lacertids in GenBank. The resulting phylogenetic tree confirmed the monophyly of genus Eremias and its viviparous species as well as E. vermiculata, respectively. The mitogenome presented here will contribute to the examination of phylogeographic structure for E. vermiculata and understanding of mitochondrial DNA evolution in Eremias.
Chen, L. & Diao, J. & Zhang, W. & Zhang, L. & Wang, Z. & Li, Y. & Deng, Y. & Zhou, Z. (2018) -
Numerous studies suggested that reptiles are sensitive to environmental pollution and the abundance of many species are in decline. Our research is aim to assess the toxic effects of pesticide in reptiles. And we also want to supply some data about nondestructive samples for environmental risk assessment in reptiles. Lizards were orally administered a single-dose of beta-cypermethrin (BCP) or myclobutanil (MC) at the concentration of 20 mg/kg body weight (bw). The results showed that pesticides could induce changes in enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, LDH, AChE) and MDA levels in organs or tissues of lizards. BCP could cause more severe oxidative damage than that of MC. Salivary enzymes activities showed sensitivity changes to the toxicity of pesticides. We could use saliva to reflect whether the reptiles are toxic by pesticides. We also agree that buccal swabs could be used as a tool for saliva sampling.
Chen, L. & Guo, J. & Zhou, Z.-S. & Li, H. (2012) -
Eleven polymorphic microsatellite loci are described for the multi-ocellated racerunner Eremias multiocellata (Squamata: Lacertidae). Loci were screened in 33 individuals of E. multiocellata. The number of alleles ranged from 11 to 17. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.515 to 0.939, and the expected heterozygosity from 0.875 to 0.925. These microsatellite markers provide a valuable set of tools for population genetic studies of E. multiocellata.
Chen, L. & Li, R. & Diao, J. & Tian, Z. & Di, S. & Zhang, W. & Cheng, C. & Zhou, Z. (2017) -
In recent years, serious environmental pollution has caused a decrease in the abundance of many species worldwide. Reptiles are the most diverse group of terrestrial vertebrates. There are large amounts of toxicological data available regarding myclobutanil, but the adverse effects of myclobutanil on lizards has not been widely reported. In this study, treatment groups were orally administered a single-dose of myclobutanil (20mg/kg body weight (bw)). Subsequently, it was found that there were differences in myclobutanil levels between the different tissues and concentrations also changed with degradation time. The tissue concentrations of myclobutanil decreased in the order of: stomach > liver > lung > blood > testis > kidney > heart > brain. Based on our results, the liver and testis were considered to be the main target organs in lizards, indicating that the myclobutanil could induce potential hepatic and reproductive toxicity on lizards. Meanwhile, it was also demonstrated that the toxic effects of myclobutanil was different in different species, and the distribution of different pesticides in lizards were different.
Chen, L. & Wang, D. & Tian, Z. & DI, S. & Zhang, W. & Wang, F. & Zhou, Z. & Diao, J. (2017) -
Soil contamination caused by the widespread use of pesticides is one of the main environmental problems facing conservation organizations. (S)-metolachlor (SM) is a selective pre-emergent herbicide that poses potential risks to soil-related organisms such as reptiles. The present study elucidated the toxic effects of SM (3 and 30 mg/kg soil weight) in Eremias argus. The results showed that growth pattern was similar between the sexes in breeding season. For males, both kidney coefficient (KC) and testis coefficient in the exposure group were significantly different from those in the control group, while only KC in the high-dose group was significantly higher for females. Based on histopathological analysis, the livers of female lizards were more vulnerable than those of males in the exposure group. A reduction in total egg output was observed in SM exposed lizards. Accumulation studies indicated that skin exposure may be an important route for SM uptake in E. argus, and that the liver and lung have strong detoxification abilities. In addition, the body burdens of the lizards increased with increasing SM concentration in the soil.
Chen, L. & Xu, P. & Diao, J. & Di, S. & Li, R. & Zhou, Z. (2016) -
Beta-cypermethrin (BCYP), a synthetic pyrethriod (PYR) pesticide which is a mixture of the alpha- and theta- cypermethrin, have been reported various toxicological profiles to non-target organisms. But little is known about assimilation, accumulation and toxic effects of BCYP in reptiles. The present study firstly elucidated absorption, tissue distribution, excretion of BCYP in Eremias argus . Treated group were administered orally with BCYP 20 mg/kg body weight (bw) dissolved in corn oil. Neurotoxicity was observed at 24 h after gavage, and the poisoning symptom ameliorated at 72 h. The changes of BCYP concentration depended on degradation time and tissues. Lizards had a strong capacity to eliminate BCYP with different tissue distribution. The tissues concentration of BCYP from high to low were intestine, stomach, heart, kidney, blood, lung, liver and brain. Bimodal phenomena were observed in lung, liver and kidney. These results may be due to the activities of enzymes, circadian rhythm, and enterohepatic circulation in lizards. Based on the results of organ coefficient and histopathology analysis in liver, the liver was confirmed as the main target organ.
Chen, Q. (1994) -
陈强 (1994) -
摘要 本文研究丽斑麻蜥Eremias argus和草原沙蜥Phrynocephalus frontalis的静止代谢率(RMR)与环境温度及体重的关系，并测定了RMR的昼夜节律。
Chen, Q. & Wang S.-Y. (1992) -
Cherlin, V.A. (2019) -
Background. The reptilian thermobiology is the most important factor determining their ecology, spatial and temporal structure of activity and biotopical distribution. But the mechanisms of this process are poorly understood. This article describes the results of studies illustrating the specific mechanisms of the influence of certain thermophysiological characteristics and characteristics of thermoregulation in two sympatric species of racerunners on their ecology and their biotopical selection in Kyzylkum desert. Materials and methods. In the Kyzylkum desert we studied the thermophysiological characteristics of the full activity and temperature stabilization ranges, as well as the thermoregulation techniques in two species of racerunners. Also, in this area we studied the climatic conditions in different biotopes. All the data obtained were associated with observations of the spatial and temporal structure of the daily activity of lizards and their biotopical preferences. Results. The aralo-caspian racerunner is noticeably less thermophilic in thermobiological indicators than the striped racerunner. The temperatures of full activity in the aralo-caspian racerunner are 32,3–39,0º, the range of temperature stabilization is 34,0–35,5º. In the striped racerunner, these indicators are 34,5–41,0º and 35,5–37,0º, respectively. For some morphological and physiological reasons, under the same conditions, the body in aralo-caspian racerunner heats up faster than in striped racerunner. Striped racerunners, unlike aralo-caspian ones, can actively use the lower branches of bushes for thermoregulation, i.e. to separate their body from the hot soil during the warmest part of day. Conclusions. The thermobiological characters and the manner of thermoregulation lead to differences in the spatial-temporal activity structure and biotopical differences between aralo-caspian and striped racerunners: the striped racerunners have the ability to use and actually use more open spaces for activity and a hotter time of day, while aralo-caspian ones use more matted areas with openwork or dense shadow, with shrubs and trees, and are active at more fresh time of day.
Chernov, S.A. (1934) -
Chernov, S.A. (1948) -
Chernov, S.A. (1954) -
Chirikova, M.A. (1999) -
Chirikova, M.A. (2000) -
Chirikova, M.A. (2004) -
Sexual dimorphism, age and geographical variability of 254 specimens of Eremias velox from 20 localities of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan were studied. Sexual dimorphism found to be clearly manifested in some metric characters, amount of abdominal shields and peculiarities of preanal region pholidosis. It is suggested to use males for the examining of ecological relations, as they demonstrate more adaptive peculiarities of given characters, whereas females are more suitable for phylogenetic analysis. Some peculiarities of age variability are demonstrated. Cline variability is shown from west to east for the following characters: body length, head length, head width, rear limb length. The rate of cline variability is less in Alakol Depression. Females, however, demonstrated the decreasing of body length meaning from west to east. The largest body size in South-East Kzyl-Kum population suggesting, probably, that the most favorable conditions for this species is located in the region mentioned. Contrary, the conditions in the Alakol Depression are less favorable. Variations of coloration are described for E. velox. It is shown that the specter of head pholidosis is distinct from other species within Eremias genus, having 1-7 scales in between of parietal and interparietal shields. Eastern Kazakhstan populations are distinct from others by several characters, including peculiarities of pholidosis.
Чирикова М.А. (2014) -
Изучены половой диморфизм, возраст и географическая изменчивость 254 особей Eremias velox из 20 населенных пунктов Казахстана и Узбекистана. Установлено, что половой диморфизм отчетливо проявляется в некоторых метрических признаках, количестве щитов живота и особенностях фолидоза преанальной области. Предлагается использовать мужчин для изучения экологических отношений, так как они демонстрируют более адаптивные особенности данных персонажей, тогда как женщины больше подходят для филогенетического анализа. Показаны некоторые особенности возрастной изменчивости. Изменчивость клина показана с запада на восток для следующих символов: длина тела, длина головы, ширина головы, длина задней конечности. Скорость вариабельности клина меньше при депрессии Алаколя. Самки, однако, продемонстрировали уменьшение длины тела с запада на восток. Самый большой размер тела в популяции Юго-Восточного Кызылкума, что, вероятно, указывает на то, что наиболее благоприятные условия для этого вида находятся в упомянутом регионе. Наоборот, условия в Алакольской депрессии менее благоприятны. Вариации окраски описаны для E. velox. Показано, что спектр головного фолидоза отличается от других видов рода Eremias, имеющих 1-7 чешуй между париетальным и межпариетальным щитами. Население Восточного Казахстана отличается от других несколькими признаками, включая особенности фолидоза.
Chirikova, M.A. (2005) -
407 specimens of Eremias arguta, 140 specimens of E. intermedia and 271 specimens of E. velox from Kazakhstan and adjacent areas were examined in respect of pholidosis variability. 24 pholidosis characters of head and preanal region and 2 pholidosis characters of rear limbs were analyzed. Resulting from analysis, we divide E. arguta into three main groups. First group comprises animals from Volgograd District (Russia) and, partially, animals from Western Kazakhstan. Second group includes the rest of Western Kazakhstan samples, North Aral Sea Region, Eastern Kazakhstan and some specimens from Semirechje. Specimens from Kzylkum sands, Karatau ridge and environs of Kopa station were referred to as third group. The rate of specimens with increased amount of shields before the 2nd supraocular shield trends to gradual grow westward and southward. E. intermedia shows no significant differences within range of species distribution in Kazakhstan. Most variable E. velox from Western Kazakhstan are characterized with absente or only single scute between frontal and supraocular shields. Most variable temporal region were documented for eastern samples.
Chirikova, M.A. (2006) -
In present work the data on morphological variability of the Stepperunner
from 6 populations of the Aral Sea Basin are resulted. Data analysis has shown that
the lizards from the northern regions of Aral Sea Basin reliably differ from those
inhabited the southwestern regions in length and width of a head, attitude of head
length to length of a trunk, length of hind limb and its attitude to trunk length,
number of scales around 9-10 tail segments and pattern of coloration.
Chirikova, M.A. (2007) -
Chirikova, M.A. (2010) -
77 specimens of the Sand Racerrunner, Eremias scripta (Strauch, 1867) from 5 populations of
Kazakhstan were studied and compared in respect of 9 metric and 6 pholidosis characters. The
differences between the lizards from Aral Sea Basin and Balkhash Lake Basin regions have been
shown in number of scales around body (Sq), scales around 9-10 tail rings (SQCD) and color pattern.
The differences in number of SQCD and color pattern were also revealed between the specimens from
the sands of South Balkhash Region and isolated Barmakkum Sands in Alakol Depression.
Chirikova, M.A. & Dujsebayeva, T. & Belialov, O.V. (2007) -
Chirikova, M.A. & Dujsebayeva, T. & Liu, J. & Guo, X. (2019) -
Phenotypic traits are usually correlated with the environment where organism occurs. In this study, the distribution of Eremias velox in the eastern periphery of its range was specified, and its morphological variation was analyzed. Linear dimensions, pholidosis, coloration and pattern features were compared among 135 specimens from nine populations inhabiting the Balkhash, Ili and Alakol basins, Junggar and Turpan depressions in the territory of Southeast Kazakhstan and Xinjiang, Northwest China. The populations from the Junggar Depression (Kuytun, Shihezi and Urumqi) were characterized by higher mean values of linear characters, the number of scales across the middle of the body and gular, and were similar in the dominant coloration patterns. Small size, dark coloration and almost complete dominance of the striped-type coloration pattern among the specimens from the Alakol Lake islands seem to have an adaptive significance associated with the isolation of the population and type of their habitats. The subspecies Eremias velox roborowskii (endemic to the Turpan Depression) is elevated to species level, as supported by morphological divergence congruent with molecular and geographical data, including its peculiar type of coloration pattern, significantly lower amount of femoral pores and a higher percentage of specimens with one enlarged preanal scale (72.7%). These results together confirm a high degree of variability in morphology for E. veloх in the eastern periphery of its range, reflecting a complex orography and the existence of multiple geographical barriers in this territory.
Chirikova, M.A. & Kolbinzev, W.G. (2003) -
Morphology and subspecies of Eremias arguta (PALLAS, 1773), in Kazakhstan.
The external morphology of Eremias arguta in Kazakhstan was examined. Three metric and ten meristic characters as well as the dorsal pattern of 206 individuals from 13 populations of southern, south-eastern and eastern Kazakhstan were analyzed. Sexual dimorphism was found to occur in relative tail length (fem. > males), number of longitudinal gular scales (fem. < males), and number of femoral pores (fem. < males). Clinal variation exists in the number of dorsals, gulars, femoral pores, and scales between femoral pores. Most of populations studied revealed a pattern of large white
spots and transverse dark strips. Some specimens from eastern Kazakhstan are characterized by small white spots and interrupted, somewhat fused dark strips. Most southern populations show elongated white spots and irregular black spots scattered along the dorsum. Subspecies status of the steppe-runners from eastern Kazakhstan is still unclear and needs future clarification. Populations from south-eastern Kazakhstan are closer to E. arguta potanini. Southernmost populations belong to E. a. uzbekistanica.
Chirikova, M.A. & Zima, Y.A. & Pestov, M.V. & Terentyev, V.A. (2020) -
Clark, R.J. & Clark, E.D. (1973) -
Clark, R.J. & Clark, E.D. & Anderson, S.C. (1966) -
Clark, R.J. & Clark, E.D. & Anderson, S.C. & Leviton, A.E. (1969) -
Cogălniceanu, D. & Rozylowicz, L. & Székely, P. & Samoilă, C. & Stănescu, F. & Tudor, M. & Székely, D. & Iosif, R. (2013) -
e reptile fauna of Romania comprises 23 species, out of which 12 species reach here the limit of their geographic range. We compiled and updated a national database of the reptile species occurrences from a variety of sources including our own eld surveys, personal communication from specialists, museum collections and the scienti c literature. e occurrence records were georeferenced and stored in a geoda- tabase for additional analysis of their spatial patterns. e spatial analysis revealed a biased sampling e ort concentrated in various protected areas, and de cient in the vast agricultural areas of the southern part of Romania. e patterns of species richness showed a higher number of species in the warmer and drier regions, and a relatively low number of species in the rest of the country. Our database provides a starting point for further analyses, and represents a reliable tool for drafting conservation plans.
Covaciu-Marcov, S.D. & Ghira, I. & Cicort-Lucaciu, A.-St. & Sas, I. & Strugariu, A. & Bogdan H.V. (2006) -
In Dobrudja we encountered 10 species of amphibians (Triturus dobrogicus, Bombina bombina, Hyla arborea, Pelobates fuscus, Pelobates syriacus, Bufo bufo, Bufo viridis, Rana dalmatina, Rana ridibunda, Rana lessonae), 16 species of reptiles (Emys orbicularis, Testudo graeca, Ablepharus kitaibelli, Lacerta agilis, Lacerta viridis, Lacerta trilineata, Podarcis taurica, Podarcis muralis, Eremias arguta, Coronella austriaca, Zamensis longissimus, Elaphe quatuorlineata, Dolichophis caspius, Natrix natrix, Natrix tessellata, Vipera ammodytes) and also Rana kl. esculenta populations. Some species of amphibians (Pelobates fuscus, Pelobates syriacus) that were only previously known inform the lower regions of the Danube’s meadow and in the vicinity of the Black Sea, were recorded in the high areas of northern Dobrudja. Also here, all three forms of the green frogs’ complex documented for Romania have been encountered, but Rana lessonae and Rana esculenta are very rare, being found only in the north. The central sectors of Dobrudja are severely impacted by human activities, almost completely cleared as a result of agriculture and showed very low number of herpetofauna species as being present. The most important areas for the herpetofauna are the northern and south-western regions.
Cox, N.A. & Temple, H.J. (2009) -
Czernay (1851) -
Dai, X. & Chen, B. & Zhang, Z.-W. & Wang, Y.-Z. (2006) -
This paper analyzed the morphological differences among the 8 Eremias species distributed in China.258 specimens were collected and measured.15 countable characters were selected to principal component analysis of data reduction.Based on the loudings of the first three principal components, scatterplots were figured out for further analysis.The results showed that 8 species located in three different regions in the scatterplots.They were E. argus species group (E. argus and E. brenchleyi), E. velox species group (E. velox and E. vermiculata), and E. multiocellata species group (E. multiocellata, E. arguta, E. przewalskii and E. grammica).The main differences between E. argus species group and other two species groups were presented on fn、pfa、scc、nvll and fprs, and it indicated that E. argus and E. brenchleyi were distinctly different from other species of Eremias.E. velox species group could be distinguished from E. multiocellata species group mainly by the character vbfp.The character pfa was found unstable in E. argus, and in 107 specimens there are five types on the numbers of prefrontal and most of them have 4 prefrontals.This article suggested that the character of prefrontal in E. argus was in the stage of intensive evolution, which indicated the formatting of new subspecies of E. argus.This research also agreed that E. quadrifrons Strauch (1876) was an invalid species.The character sisl could be used to distinguish E. argus from E. brenchleyi, which was regarded as a valid species and this character was treated as the difference to classify different species.E. velox and E. vermiculata could be easily distinguished by the characters nvll and clov.The character oa indicated E. grammica should be a group independent among all 8 species.The research showed that the difference between E. m. yarkandensis and E. m. multiocellata was sisl and larger than the differences in E. m. multiocellata、E. arguta and E. przewalskii.We speculated that E. m. yarkandensis should be a valid species but not a subspecies of E. multiocellata.E. m. multiocellata and E. przewalskii were so similar that it was difficult to distinguish them by morphological countable characters.We doubted the validity of the E. przewalskii.Finally based on the results of this research, 8 species were divided into four species groups: E. argus group (E. argus and E. brenchleyi), E. velox group (E. velox and E. vermiculata), E. multiocellata group (E. multiocellata, E. arguta and E. przewalskii), and E. grammica group.
Dai, X. & Zeng, X.-M. & Chen, B. & Wang, Y.-Z. (2004) -
Based on the Giemsa-dyeing karyotypes and silver-staining bands of 15 populations from different localities in China belonging to 6 species of the genus Eremias , We found all species studied have 19 pairs of chromosomes, the size of chromosomes reduces gradually and there are no marked differences between the arranged pairs of macrochromosomes except the last pair of microchromosome. There are the same karyotype formula as 2n=38=36I+2m with NF=38 in E. argus, E. multiocellata, E. velox, E. arguta and E. grammica; but the karyotype formula of E. vermiculata is different as 2n=38=12V+2sI+22I+2m with NF=50. The NOR are all located on one small pair in female of E. velox, and E. arguta , in male of E. grammica and E. vermiculata ,and in both male and female of E. multiocellata. We have not found two or more than two pairs of NOR. Having one pair of NOR may be common in Genus Eremias and also the trait of Eremias. We speculate that the derivation of the karyotype of E. vermiculata had two possible way: one experienced the stage of triploid, and later the Robertsonian transposal of chromosomes; the other way was through the inversions between the arms on the chromosome and the phenomenon of inversions might occur during or subsequently after the upheaval of the Tibet and Qinghai plateau and the founding of the Tianshan . With regard to the trend of the evolution of chromosomes in the lizards (), the karyotype of E. vermiculata is more advanced. Making specialties of E. vermiculata will help in building the phylogenic tree of Eremias. In both male and female of the species studied, the heteromorphic sex-chromosomes were not found.
Damadi, E. & Karamiani, R. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Gholamifard, A. (2017) -
During herpetological fieldwork from April 2013 to March 2014 on the herpetofauna of the counties of Saravan, Sib and Suran, Zaboli, Sarbaz, and Chabahar in south east of Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Southeastern Iran a total of 97 specimens of lizards belonging to 19 species and five subspecies, 16 genera, and six families were collected and identified as follows: Calotes versicolor, Laudakia nupta nupta, L. n. fusca, Phrynocephalus scutellatus, Trapelus agilis agilis (Agamidae); Agamura persica, Bunopus tuberculatus, Cyrtopodion scabrum (Gekkonidae); Acanthodactylus blanfordii, A. micropholis, Eremias fasciata, E. persica , Mesalina watsonana, Ophisops elegans (Lacertidae); Ablepharus grayanus, Eumeces schneiderii zarudnyi, Ophiomorus brevipes, O. tridactylus (Scincidae); Uromastyx asmussi (Uromastycidae); and Varanus griseus caspius (Varanidae). The most diverse families of the present collection are the Lacertidae with six species, followed by Agamidae and Scincidae each with four species. Detailed information of each lizard species was also provided.
Darevsky, I.S. (1953) -
Darevsky, I.S. (1957) -
Даревский, И.С. (1957) -
Darevsky, I.S. & Szczerbak, N.N. (1978) -
Eremias andersoni is a new species from Descht-i-Kevir desert (Iran). It differs from the closely related psammophile species E. fasciata, E. lineolata and E. scripta by the absence of uninterrupted rows of granules between frontal and frontoparietal shield.
Darvish, J. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2012) -
The reptile and mammals fauna of North-East of Iran were investigated and the
contraction and fragmentation of some species due to climatic changes and human
activities were analyzed. The sampling was carried out in selected stations throughout
the Great Khorsan. The results showed that there are approximately 71 reptiles
(including 39 species of lizards, 32 snakes and one turtle) and 83 species of mammals.
The exact number of vulnerable and threatened reptile and mammal species in Khorasan
provinces is not clear, but there are at least 33 reptiles and 10 mammals categorized as
threatened species. The distribution and population size of some species has greatly
changed during recent years, most probably as a result of recent global warming, i. e.
temperature rise, decrease of precipitation, drought and human harmful activities. The
human activity in this region, especially urbanization, agricultural activities and cutting
of shrubs has caused fragmentation and serious decline of population size in some
species and even elimination of some local endemic population of relict species. The
conservation of mammals and reptiles in the North-East of Iran demands organized
collaborations including education of native people for protection of valuable vertebrate
faunae of the area.
Das, I. (1996) -
Davletbakov, A.T. & Kustareva, L.A. & Milko, D.A. & Ostastshenko, A.N. & Sagymbaev, S.S. & Toropov, S.A. & Trotchenko, N.V. (2015) -
The Cadastre of the Genetical Fund is the of cial directory on biodiversity – the annotated check-list of living creatures registered on the territory of the country, re ecting the current state of the biotic inventory.
The present volume IV is devoted to the chordates and contains general distributional data about representatives of ve classes of vertebrate animals: ray- nned shes (Actinopterygii), amphibians (Amphibia), reptiles (Reptilia), birds (Aves), and mammals (Mammalia). This volume completes the national faunal inventory (the check-list of all invertebrate animals is presented in volumes II and III).
In total, there are listed 602 species (with all local subspecies) represents 325 genera belongs to 119 families. There are also included 14 species doubtfully recorded in Kyrgyzstan, and 36 species names are expunged from faunal list. Each taxon name is supplied with the main synonymy, most accepted Russian, Kyrgyz, and English names. Data on current distribution within Kyrgyzstan and endemicity level are provided for each species (subspecies), as well as main references. The guide book also contains 74 color photographs in the annex.
It is destined for experts in ecology, zoologists, specialists and employers of the institutions for the management of the natural resources, nature conservation and biological education.
Dehgani, A. & Karamiani, R. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Banan-Khojasteh, S.M. (2016) -
The Arasbaran Protected Area is a forested and mountainous area, which is located in northern part of East Azerbaijan province and bordered to the north by Armenia and Azerbaijan and southern Aras River of the Iranian Plateau confined to 38°40` to 39°08`N and 46°39` to 47°02`E. A study on the status of Sauria in this area was carried out from June to September 2011 and 2013. A total of 141 specimens were collected and identified, which represented four families, 11genera, and 12 species and subspecies, including collected Agamidae: Paralaudakia caucasia, Phrynocephalus persicus, Trapelus lessonae, Anguidae: Pseudopus apodus, Lacertidae: Darevskia raddeii, Iranolacerta brandtii, Eremias strauchi, Lacerta media, Lacerta strigata, Ophisops elegans and Scincidae: Eumeces schneideri Ablepharus bivittatus. The Lacertidae with six species, showed the highest diversity among the families represented here. In this study a new locality was found for Lacerta strigata 30 km north of kalibar, in the Arasbaran.
سید مهدی بانان خجسته امیر دهقانی، رسول کرمیانی،، نصراله رستگار-پویانی، (1396) -
ارسباران یک منطقه کوهستانی با کوههای دارای شیب تند و جنگلی است که در شمال استان آذربایجانشرقی و در همسایگی کشور های جمهوری آذربایجان، ارمنستان و جنوب رود ارس، در محدوده `۴۴ ۳۳° تا `۳ °۳3 شمالی و`۳3 °۴1 تا `۲ °۴۴ شرقی واقع شده است. در طی مطالعه و نمونهبرداری فون خزندگان منطقه ارسباران که از تیر ماه سال 3۴ تا تیر سال 3۲ انجام شد. مجموعا۱۴۱ نمونه از ۴ خانواده، ۱۱ جنس و ۱۲ گونه و زیر گونه سوسمار جمعآوری و
شناسایی شد. که این نمونهها شامل:
Paralaudakia caucasia, Phrynocephalus persicus, Trapelus lessonae, Anguidae: Pseudopus apodus, Lacertidae: Darevskia raddeii, Iranolacerta brandtii, Eremias strauchi, Lacerta media, Lacerta strigata, Ophisops elegans and Scincidae: Eumeces schneideri, Ablepharus bivittatus
که در بین اینها خانواده سرتیده با 1 گونه با ترین تنوع را
نشان میدهد و گونه Darevskia raddeii بیشترین پراکنش را دارد. در این مطالعه گونه Lacerta strigata برای اولین بار از
Dely, O.G. (1979) -
The variability of some Mongolian populations of three species from the genus Eremias (Eremias argus W. Peters, E. multiocella Günther and E. przewalskii (Strauch)) was studied. Not only the intraspecific variability of a number of morphological characters, especially that of the pholidose of the pileus, but the homologous variability between the different species, were also analysed. Some of these characters reveal a close relationships between the different species of the genus. Some new locality data are also published
Dely, O.G. (1980) -
Dely, O.G. (1981) -
The morphological variability of some specimens of Eremias argus argus W. Peters from the Democratic People´s Republic of Korea and from Peopleé Republic of China was studies. Both samples reveal about the same variation of the analysed characters.
Detwiler, S.R. (1923) -
Dieckmann, M. (2008) -
Dieckmann, M. (2011) -
Diesener, G. & Reichholf, J. (1986) -
Dixon, J.R. (1956) -
Dolotovskaya, S.I. & Chirikova, M. & Solovyeva, E.N. & Poyarkov, N.A. & Wan, L. & Orlova, V.F. (2007) -
Doronin, I.V. & Doroninа, M.A. (2019) -
The distribution of Eremias arguta in the North Caucasus within Kabardino-Balkaria is discussed. A new find of the species from Geduko in the Baksansky district is presented.
И.В. Доронин & М.А. Доронина (2019) -
Обсуждается распространение разноцветной ящурки (Eremias arguta) на Северном Кавказе в пределах Кабар- дино-Балкарии. Приводится новая находка вида из урочища Гедуко в Баксанском районе.
Doronin, I.V. & Ermolina, L.P. (2012) -
A reptile catalogue of the Zoological Museum, Stavropol State University, is presented. 1,019 specimens of 88 species collected within the territories of Russian Federation, Ukraine, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and some other areas are listed. The history of the Museum and the formation of its collection are given.
Доронин И.В., Ермолина Л.П. (2012) -
Представлен каталог рептилий Зоологического музея Ставропольского государственного университета, в котором дается информация о 1019 экз. 88 видов, собранных на территориях России, Украины, Грузии, Казахстана, Узбекистана, Туркмении. Рассмотрена история создания музея и формирования коллекции.
Du, Y. & Qiu, Q.B. & Tong, Q.L. & Lin, L.H. (2016) -
In this paper, the complete mitochondrial genome of Eremias przewalskii (Squamata: Lacertidae) is reported, which is a circular molecule of 18,225 bp in size. The base composition of mtDNA is as follows: 30.3% A, 27.9% T, 27.9% C and 13.9% G. The genome consists of 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and one putative control region.
Dugarov, Z.N. & Baldanova, D.R. & Khamnueva, T.R. (2017) -
The effects of the degree of urbanization on the composition and mean abundance of helminth species and the structure of helminth communities in the Mongolian racerunner were investigated along a rural–urban gradient in the region of Ulan-Ude city (the Republic of Buryatia, Russia) and neighbouring rural districts. Racerunners were obtained from key areas and categorized into three grades based on the degree of urbanization. In this study, a total of 208 lizards were examined. The helminth communities in the Mongolian racerunner were studied at the infracommunity and component community levels. The nematode Spauligodon pseudoeremiasi was a sensitive bioindicator of the degree of urbanization in our study. All parameters of helminth infracommunities in the Mongolian racerunner were significantly reduced with increasing degree of urbanization of the key areas. Two parameters of helminth component communities (the proportion of hosts infected with parasites and the Shannon index) were significantly reduced with increasing degree of urbanization. The decline recorded in parameters of helminth infracommunities and component communities in the Mongolian racerunner were probably connected with the attenuation of the relationships between helminths, having a complex life cycle with intermediate hosts along the rural–urban gradient.
Dugès, A. (1832) -
Dujsebayeva, T.N. (2010) -
Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Barabanov, A.B. & Ananjeva, N.B. (2018) -
In this article, a list of lizards of fauna of Kazakhstan, compiled according to the latest taxonomic revisions with the aim of unifying the taxonomy is presented, and a short outline of the history of views on the composition of fauna of Kazakhstan lizards are presented. The tasks of this work are explained by a significant increase in the number of special publications and frequent changes in views on the phylogenetic position and taxonomic status of species.
Т.Н. Дуйсебаева & А.В. Барабанов & Н.Б. Ананьева (2018) -
В настоящей статье приведен список ящериц фауны Казахстана, составлен- ный согласно последним таксономическим ревизиям с целью унификации таксономии на данном отрезке времени, а также представлен краткий очерк истории взглядов на состав фауны ящериц Казахстана. Задачи этой рабо- ты продиктованы существенным ростом числа специальных публикаций и частыми изменениями во взглядах на филогенетическое положение и так- сономический статус видов.
Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Belyalov, O.V. & Orlova, V.F. & Chirikova, M.A. (2007) -
Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Chirikova, M.A. & Belyalov, O.V. (2009) -
New finds of the lizards of Eremias multiocellata complex became known for extreme southeast of Kazakhstan. In 2006-2007 re recorded the lizards in the mountain valleys of Kegen and Tekes Rivers creossing an intermountain depression located between Ketmen’ and Terskey-Alatau at altitude 1850-1950 m a.s.l. Morphological analysis revealed the reliable differences of the specimens collected from other species of multiocellata complex inhabited the close areas – E. stummeri from Issyk-Kul’ Depression and E. kokshaaliensis from Sary-Dzhaz River Basin of Kyrgyzstan. Morphological peculiarity of the populations recorded may be caused by their isolative position in extreme southeast of Kazakhstan and needs future elucidation.
Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Fedotovskikh, G.V. & Strelyukhina, N.A. (2007) -
The paper presents data on the histology and ultrastructure of the liver of two lizard species, Lacerta agilis and Eremias arguta, inhabiting the territory of the former Semipalatinsk Test Site (Eastern Kazakhstan). An LM study has shown the presence of pathological changes expressed in irregular vascular filling of the liver and venous, local discomplexation of hepatocyte, vacuole and adipose dystrophies and an increase of the local micronecroses where the lymphocyte, resident macrophage and Kupffer cell infiltrations have been registered. An EM investigation has revealed the features of glycogenolysis and decreasing of the lipid embeddings, the phenomenon of hydropical dystrophy and intracellular swelling in the certain part of the hepatocytes, significant hemosiderin accumulations in the liver cells appeared because of intensified catabolism of the phagocyted erythrocytes. The high level of metabolism processes was provided by utilization of the lipid embeddings, the high level of nucleoprotein synthesis and intensification of phosphorylating function of the mitochondria. The functional activity of Kupfer’s hyperplastic cells was directed to the synthesis of pigment granules, the mostimportant role among which belongs to melanin as a strong antioxidant protecting the body against free radicals.
Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Malakhov, D.V. & Berezovikov, N.N. & Guo, X. & Liu, J. & Cherednichenko, A.V. (2019) -
The distribution and habitat characteristics of two Eremias species (E. arguta and E. stummeri) from contiguous areas of southeastern Kazakhstan, northeastern Kyrgyzstan, and western Xinjiang, China, were analyzed using GIS modeling. We show that both species are dry-steppe-adapted xerophilous lizards with sclerophilic and partially petrophilic specialization. In spite of the visible similarity of the ecological niches (ENs) occupied by E. arguta and E. stummeri, the latter differs in a number of key variables. While most of the precipitation variables, the radiation of the winter and off-season months, and afternoon (PM) humidity are most important for E. arguta habitats, the habitats suitable for E. stummeri are limited by temperature variables, radiation during most of the year, and morning (AM) humidity. Differences on this scale indicate the way in which these lizards are adapted to different ecosystems — E. arguta to the plains and E. stummeri to the mountains — and support the views on their different zoogeographical accessory. Avisible correspondence of the distributional pattern of the two Eremias species to the mountain piedmonts and low foothills, with Pliocene-Quaternary concreted pebble deposits and the loess strata, permit us to consider mountain trails as the most likely means by which the species expanded in the Late Cenozoic period. Pronounced isolation of the populations in the Northern and the Central Tien Shan intramontane depressions appears as a factor from at least the Late Pliocene (E. stummeri) and the Middle Pleistocene (E. arguta) periods; and the association of the lizard habitats with loess deposits has given rise to the suggestion that there was an absence of serious change in their ranges during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Low precipitation, a high annual temperature range and the high aridity of the climate in general beyond the ENM optimum of E. arguta all point to severe conditions for lizards surviving already in the eastern part of the Ily Basin and explain the limited species distribution in the highly arid deserts of Xinjiang. In terms of methodology, our data highlights the lack of a ‘generalized set’ of BIOCLIM parameters in the ecological niche modeling of the mountain species. In particular, moisture and solar radiation as well as the relief variables play an important role in the ecological health of the poikilothermic xerophilous species inhabiting mountain areas.
Duméril, A.M.C. & Bibron, G. (1839) -
Dunaev, E.A. & Orlova, V.F. (2017) -
From the publisher:
Before you a unique atlas-determinant. For the first time in one edition descriptions of all species of amphibians and reptiles living on the territory of Russia are presented, illustrated with beautiful color photographs. The book is written by E.A. Dunaev and V.F. Orlova, the famous Russian herpetologists, researchers of the Zoological Museum of Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov. Lomonosov. A simple and accessible form of presentation, detailed descriptions of the external appearance, lifestyle and behavior, photographs reflecting all variants of the variability of these animals, will help the curious reader to become more familiar with turtles, snakes, lizards, frogs and other representatives of the herpetofauna. And special keys will allow you to determine who you met on a country walk, in a city park, at a dacha or while traveling to different corners of our country.
The book is of great interest not only for nature lovers, but also for specialists in herpetology and students of biological faculties of universities. It lists the amphibians and reptiles of the native fauna, reflects the latest changes in the taxonomy of these groups, lists species included in the Red Book of Russia and regional Red Books, lists reference and scientific publications on reptiles and amphibians of Russian fauna.
Дунаев, Е.A. & Орлова, B.Ф. (2017) -
Перед вами уникальный атлас-определитель. Впервые в одном издании представлены описания всех видов земноводных и пресмыкающихся, обитающих на территории России, проиллюстрированные прекрасными цветными фотографиями. Книга написана Е.А. Дунаевым и В.Ф. Орловой, известными отечественными герпетологами, научными сотрудниками Зоологического музея Московского государственного университета имени М.В. Ломоносова.Простая и доступная форма изложения, подробные описания внешнего облика, образа жизни и поведения, фотографии, отражающие все варианты изменчивости этих животных, помогут любознательному читателю ближе познакомиться с черепахами, змеями, ящерицами, лягушками и другими представителями герпетофауны. А специальные ключи позволят определить, с кем именно вы встретились на загородной прогулке, в городском парке, на даче или во время путешествий по различным уголкам нашей страны.
Книга представляет большой интерес не только для любителей природы, но и для специалистов-герпетологов и студентов биологических факультетов вузов. В ней приведен полный список амфибий и рептилий отечественной фауны, отражены новейшие изменения в таксономии этих групп, указаны виды, включенные в Красную книгу России и региональные Красные книги, перечислены справочные и научные издания, посвященные рептилиям и амфибиям фауны России.
Düsen, S. & Kumlutaş, Y. & Ilgaz, C. & Yaka, H. & Karadayi, F. (2013) -
In this investigation, a total of 44 racerunner lizard samples (Eremias pleskei, Eremias strauchi, and Eremias suphani) collected from eastern part of Turkey were examined for the first time for helminths. Eremias pleskei was harboured 1 species of acanthocepalan (in cystacanth stage), E. strauchi was harboured 2 species of nematodes, and E. suphani was harboured 3 species of nematodes and 1 species of cestode. E. strauchi represents a new host record for Spauligodon eremiasi, and Spauligodon saxicolae E. suphani represents a new host record for Spauligodon eremiasi, S. saxicolae, Physaloptera sp., and Oochoristica tuberculata, and also, E. pleskei represents a new host record for unidentified acanthocepalan (in cystacanth stage). Also, Turkey is a new locality record for Spauligodon eremiasi.
Dzukic, G. & Kalezic, M.L. (2001) -
Ebrahimipour, F.E. & Rastegar-Puyani, E. & Ghorbani, B. (2016) -
We have studied the terrestrial reptile fauna of the northwest Yazd province (Iran) and present here some of the characters that we examined for common species in the region. In total, 50 specimens from eight families (six lizard families and two snake families) were collected from the region. The collected lizards belonging to 13 species were Laudakia nupta, Phrynocephalus maculatus, Phrynocephalus scutellatus, and Trapelus agilis (Agamidae); Agamura persica and Bunopus crassicaudus (Gekkonidae), Teratoscincus bedriagai (Sphaerodactylidae); Eremias fasciata, Eremias persica, Mesalina watsonana, and Ophisops elegans (Lacertidae); Varanus griseus (Varanidae), and finally Uromastix asmussi belonging to the Uromastycidae. The two species of snakes were Spalerosophis diadema schiraziana (Colubridae) and Psammophis schokari (Lamprophiidae). Based on these results, Agamidae and Lacertidae are the families with highest number of genera and the genera Eremias and Phrynocephalus had the most species. Among the collected lizards, Trapelus agilis, Mesalina watsonana, and Bunopus crassicaudus were the most abundant species in the northwest Yazd province.
Eichwald, E. (1830) -
Eichwald, E. (1840) -
Eplanova, G.V. (2004) -
Eplanova, G.V. (2008) -
Seasonal activity of three species of lizards (Lacertidae) — Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773), Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758, Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823), living in Samara Region, was analyzed. Periods of seasonal activity for E. arguta and L. agilis (on dates of the fi rst occurrence in the spring and last meeting before hibernation) are adduced according to the author’s observation in 2001—2006. Differences in period of activity of adult and young individuals are marked.
Eplanova, G.V. (2011) -
The data on the population of Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773) from the vicinity of Togliatti in this article are presented. Age structure and sex ratio in populations studied is determined.
Eplanova, G.V. & Bakiev, A.G. (2002) -
Eplanova, G.V. & Bakiev, A.G. & Lysenko, T.M. (2001) -
Eplanova, G.V. & Bakiyev, A.G. & Rem, S.V. (2003) -
Eremchenko, V.K. (1999) -
Eremchenko, V.K. & Panfilov A.M. (1999) -
Eremchenko, V.K. & Panfilov, A.M. (1999) -
Eremchenko, V.K. & Panfilov, A.M. & Tzarinenko, E.I. (1992) -
Eversmann, E. (1834) -
Eversmann, E. (1844) -
Farashi, A. & Alizadeh-Noughani, M. (2019) -
Although reptiles are the most diverse group of terrestrial vertebrates, crucial data on their extinction risks are lacking. The reptile species assessed by IUCN are only a fraction of those at risk of extinction. Thus, conservation planning and management decisions are hindered by the lack of ecological information on the species’ distribution patterns and their habitat requirements. Pleske’s racerunner (Eremias pleskei) is a rare and critically endangered species known to occur exclusively in the eastern Anatolian Montane Steppe ecoregion. In this study, we used ten species distribution model algo- rithms and 62 climate change scenarios (from 19 global climate models under four representative concentration pathways) to predict future habitat suitability for Pleske’s racerunner in the Anatolian Montane Steppe ecoregion. Our results indicate that this species may in future migrate from its current distribution range towards the central and western areas of the Anatolian Montane Steppe ecoregion. Our results also show that the variation in the temperature-related variables in suitable habitats will increase in future as compared with the current conditions. It seems that due to climate change, in future, deserts will be appropriate for this species. The same mechanisms, however, will make some of its current habitats unsuitable. Dealing with uncertainties in climate change and species distribution modeling is a major challenge when planning strategies for species’ conservation. We recommend conservation measures to be implemented to make sure that E. pleskei’s current habitats are suitable for it also in future.
Fedorov, A.N. & Fedorova, L.V. & Grechko, V.V. & Ryabinin, D.M. & Sheremet`eva, V.A. & Bannikova, A.A. & Lomov, A.A. & Ryskov, A.P. & Darevsky, I.S. (1999) -
A specially optimized restriction analysis of
highly repetitive DNA elements, called DNA taxonprint,
was applied for phylogenetic study of primates and lizards.
It was shown that electrophoretic bands of DNA
repeats revealed by the taxonprint technique have valuable
properties for molecular systematics. Approximately
half of taxonprint bands (TB) are invariable and
do not disappear from the genomes during evolution or
change spontaneously. Presumably these invariable
bands are restriction fragments of dispersed DNA repeats.
Another group represents variable taxonprint
bands that differ even between closely related species.
These variable bands are probably represented by tandem
DNA repeats and could be used as species-specific
markers. It was shown that taxonprint bands are independent
characters since the appearance of a new taxonprint
band does not change the previous band pattern.
Phylogenetic reconstruction carried out on taxonprint data
demonstrated that this approach could be of general utility
for molecular systematics and species identification.
Feng, Z. & Sun, J. & Zhao, Y. & Lui, C. (2005) -
冯照军 孙建梅 赵彦禹 刘缠民 (2005) -
山地麻蜥主要栖息在市郊海拔大于100 m的山丘上部及山顶.研究结果表明,山地麻蜥正常密度大约为1只/100 m2,其数量与山丘土石状况、植被盖度及海拔高度有一定关系,与植被类型关系不大.山地麻蜥似乎有一定的`护洞`行为.主食昆虫和蜘蛛,春季食物生态位宽度大于秋季,食物生态位重叠度为0.61.性比变化较大,出蛰初期和冬眠前期雄多雌少;而5～10月份期间,性比接近1.幼体至成体发育期间,雄性生长快于雌性;但成年期后,雌性头体部分的生长快于雄性,可能与怀卵有关.山地麻蜥种群可分为4个年龄组,个体数量比约为幼年:亚成年:成年A:成年B≈1.8:1.9:3.1:1,但成体与非成体的数量比约为1.2:1,应属于稳定型种群.个体自然寿命约为5.5～6周年.人类干扰是山地麻蜥种群下降的原因之一.
Finsch, O. (1880) -
Fischer, J.G. (1888) -
Fitch, H.S. (1970) -
Fitzinger, L.I. (1843) -
Forcart, L. (1950) -
Franzen, M. (1990) -
Franzen, M. & Heckes, U. (1999) -
Unterscheidungsmerkmale für adulte Eremias strauchi und E. suphani sind das Vorhandensein einer doppelten oder einfachen, die Schuppen des dritten Submaxillariapaares trennenden Gulariareihe bei E. suphani (drittes Submaxillariapaares bei E. strauchi in Kontakt), das Vorhandensein von vergrößerten Gularia am dritten Submaxillariapaares bei E. strauchi (keine vergrößerten Gularia bei E. suphani), das Vorhandensein einer ventrolateralen Reihe scharf abgrenzender, großer, runder, weißer Flecken, die zu einem Band zusammenfließen können bei E. suphani (diffus angrenzende, kleine, längliche Flecken oder eine diffuse Längslinie bei E. strauchi) sowie verschiedene Dorsalzeichnungen.
In der Türkei leben die Arten schwerpunktmäßig in zwei unterschiedlichen Steppenklimata, die durch jeweils vier humide, semihumide und aride Monate (E. strauchi) beziehungsweise acht humide und vier aride Monate (E. suphani) gekennzeichnet sind. E. strauchi und E. suphani treffen in der Senke von Doğubayazit aufeinander, wo sie parapatrisch leben. Die Habitate beider Arten sind ähnlich; es werden jeweils hat verbackene, lehmige Böden oder lockere, sandige Substrate mit einer spärlichen Vegetationsdecke besiedelt.
Frotzler, N. & Bader, T. (2007) -
Frynta, D. & Moravec, J. & Čiháková, J. & Sádlo, J. & Hodková, Z. & Kaftan, M. & Kodym, P. & Král, D. & Pitule, V. & Šejna, V. (1997) -
Fu, J. (1998) -
A phylogeny of the family Lacertidae was derived from mtDNA gene sequence data. Seventeen species, representing 16 currently recognized genera and subgenera, were included in the analysis. A total of 954 bp was obtained and aligned from 12S and 16S partial gene sequences. A preferred tree was selected based on weighted parsimony and functional ingroup and outgroup analyses. Decay analysis, bootstrapping, and permutation tail probability were used to evaluate support for the recovered nodes. The genus Gallotia was resolved as the basal taxon and the sister group of all remaining lacertids.Takydromus branched off next. All African lacertids grouped together and formed a monophyletic clade with the Eurasian genera Eremiasand Ophisops. The remaining Eurasian lacertids sequentially branched off near the base of the tree in a “comb-like” fashion. The basal position of Gallotia and the monophyly of African lacertids are consistent with previous hypotheses. The European-origin hypothesis of lacertids is favored, and the distribution of lacertids in Africa is likely a Miocene dispersal event. Most of the extant European lacertids probably arose after the Eocene. The classification of the family needs to be revised.
Fu, J. (2000) -
A phylogeny of the family Lacertidae was derived from DNA sequences of six mitochondrial genes. Only a few nodes were confidently resolved using maximum parsimony, although the data yielded a total of 1664 phylogenetically informative characters. The lacertids grouped into two subfamilies, the Gallotiinae which includes genera Gallotia and Psammodromus, and the Lacertinae which includes the remaining lacertids. The Lacertinae split into two additional groups. The African group included all African and Arabian lacertids and two Eurasian genera, Eremias and Ophisops; the remaining Eurasian lacertids were included in the Eurasian group. Most of the relationships within the African and Eurasian groups cannot be confidently resolved. A permutation tail probability test suggested that there is very little character covariance in the data to support these unresolved relationships. A recent explosive speciation hypothesis was invoked to explain the lack of structure of the data. The common ancestor of the Eurasian group, as well as the ancestor of the African group, experienced simultaneous, or almost simultaneous, multiple speciation events, which left none or very few characters fixed on the internodes. The phylogenetic reconstruction at the family level will be very difficult, if not impossible. Future phylogenetic research should focus on lower levels.
Fuhn, I.E. & Vancea, S. (1961) -
Gallina, S. & Maury, Ma. E. & Rogovin, K. & Semenov, D. (1985) -
Este trabajo tuvo como objetivo comparar las comunida- des de lagartijas de habitats similares: dunas de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Mapimí, México y dunas semimóviies de la Reserva de la Biosfera de Repetek, URSS, a través del análisis de la riqueza específica, diversidad, abundancia y ciclos de actividad. Mapimí resultó ser una comunidad más diversa (2.38) y con mayor abundancia de lagartijas (16.9 ind/ha) que Repetek (1.62 y 9.07 ind/ha respectivamente). En relación a los ciclos de actividad se encontraron dos tipos en ambas zonas; el continuo y el discontinuo. los valores más altos en amplitud de nichos para especies de ciclo continuo fueron para Urna exsul (Ds = 0.704) y Phrynocephalus interscapularis (Ds = 0.647), mientras que para especies de ciclo discontinuo fueron para Cnemidophorus tigris (Ds = 0.404) y Eremias grammica (0.368). la sobreposición del nicho temporal en Mapimí fue entre Uta stansburiana y C. tigris (R = 0.86) y en Repetek P. interscapularis y E. grammica (R=0.65). Se identificaron como equivalentes ecológicos y otológicos, en las comunidades de Mapimí y Repetek a: Urna exsul con Phrynocephalus interscapularis y Cnemidophorus tigris con Eremias grammica.
Ganschuk, S.V. & Sivkova, T.N. (2014) -
It is known that parasitic worms are an integral part of the natural ecosystem, performing a complex regulatory function. The aim of our study was to investigate the pathological changes that occur in the tissues of lizards exposed to parasites. In histological specimens of small intestine we observed cross sections of nematodes. The bodies of parasites with vaguely expressed organ structure and rounded formations of a small size, were surrounded by a wide strip of acellular eosinophilic mass; in the central parts there was a single rounded basophilic inclusion. On this basis we can assume that there is a formation of fibrosis, a protection against the parasite. Intestinal nematode parasitism in the studied lizards causes building of a xenoparasite barrier. The formation of the xenoparasite barrier is due to the adaptation of a parasitic agent and the host.
Garanin, V.I. (1983) -
Gelashvili, D.B. & Nizhegorodcev, A.A. & Eplanova, G.V. & Tabachishin, V.G. (2011) -
Georgi, J.G. (1801) -
Ghaemitalab, V.S. & Kami, H.G. (2016) -
Squamata or scaled Reptiles are the largest order of new Reptiles including Lizards, Snakes and Amphisbaenia. They have formed 95 precent of new Reptiles. Our goal is Lizard Biodiversity of Torbat-e Heydaryeh in Razavi Khorasan Province. The study of Lizards Biodiversity of Torbat-e Heydaryeh in Razavi Khorasan Province was carried out in 2012 until 2013. In this research 132 specimens were collected and observed and identified on the basis of morphological, morphometric and meristic characters. The collected and observated Lizards belonging to 5 families: Agamidae, Lacertidae, Scincidae, Gekkonidae and Varanidae including 8 genera and 12 species. Results showed that Agamidae and Lacertidae families have the most frequency. The Agamidae family has the most genera and Lacertidae family has the most species. laudakia caucasia, laudakia microlepis, Trapelus sanguinolentus and Mesalina watsonana were the dominant species in this region and had a wider distribution rang in coparision with other species.
وجیهه السادات قائمیطلب1، حاجی قلی کمی2* (1396) -
Squamata یا خزندگان فلسدار بزرگترین راسته از خزندگان عصر حاضر هستند که دربرگیرنده همه سوسمارها و مارها و سوسمارهای کرممانند هستند و 33 درصد همه خزندگان امروزی را دربرمیگیرند. هدف ما مطالعه تنوع زیستی مارمولکها در منطقه تربتحیدریه در استان خراسان رضوی است. برای مطالعه تنوع زیستی سوسماران شهرستان تربتحیدریه در استان خراسان رضوی نمونهبرداری در بهار 1931 آغاز و تا تابستان 1932 به طول انجامید. در این پژوهش 192 نمونه جمعآوری و مشاهده گردید و بر اساس ویژگیهای مورفولوژیک، مورفومتریک و مریستیک شناسایی گردیدند. نتایج مطالعات نشان داد سوسمارهای جمعآوری و مشاهده شده متعلق به 3 خانواده آگامیده (Agamidae)، گکونیده (Gekkonidae)، سرتیده (Lacertidae)، سینسیده (Scincidae) و وارانیده (Varanidae)، شامل 8 جنس و 12 گونه میباشند. نتایج نشان داده خانواده آگامیده و سرتیده بیشترین فراوانی را دارا بوده و خانواده آگامیده بیشترین تعداد جنس و خانواده سرتیده بیشترین تعداد گونه را در منطقه دارا میباشند که گونههای laudakia Trapelus ،laudakia microlepis ،caucasia sanguinolentus و Mesalina watsonana نمونههای بارز منطقه میباشند و دامنه پراکندگی گستردهای در مقایسه با سایر
Gherghel, J. & Strugariu, A. & Galvan T. (2007) -
The present paper proves that the endangered steppe runner (Eremias argutadeserti) still exists in the “Hanu Conachi River Sand Dunes” Nature Reserve. Prior to thisstudy it had not been recorded for almost 40 years and had been reported as extinct inthis region by the Romanian Red Data Book of Vertebrates. However, the majority of itsnatural habitat has been destroyed by the Robinia pseudoacacia plantations from thereserve. In order to ensure the survival of Eremias arguta deserti in the reserve, and inRomanian Moldavia, urgent measures have to be taken to reconstruct its natural habitatthrough the development of a management plan under the supervision and guidance ofexperts. At present, the steppe runner population from Hanu Conachi is extremelythreatened.
Gholamifard, A. (2011) -
Iran contains 36 named endemic reptile species in 17 genera and seven families. The
most endemic and speciose family is the Gekkonidae, followed by the Lacertidae. These
two families collectively dominate with 22 species (or 60.1%) of the total endemic
herpetofauna. Twenty one endemics are known only from a single location or restricted
area within a single physiographic region. An analysis of endemicity is given in terms of
systematics and distribution.
Gholamifard, A. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. (2015) -
The genus Eremias, Fitzinger, 1834, with 35 species of mostly sand, steppe, and desert dweller lizards, is one of the most specious genera of the diverse family of Lacertidae. Here, we record E. fasciata from Hormozgan Province, a new location in southern Iran, and describe the specimens morphometrics. Previously published localities for E. fasciata in Iran lie between 450 and 1700 m elevation, while the elevation of this new locality is at about 15 m a.s.l.
Gichikhanova, U.A. & Magomedova, R.M. & Gadziramazanova, A.G. (2021) -
Glandt, D. (2010) -
Glandt, D. (2011) -
Glandt, D. & Trapp, B. (2022) -
Gmelin, J.F. (1789) -
Goncharov, A.G. (2013) -
Гончаров, А.Г. (2013) -
Results of research of the diet of steppe runner (Eremias ar- guta) on the north of the area, in the Khopyor State Nature Re- serve (Voronezh Province, Novokhopersk District), are pre- sented. The analysis of the obtained data and their comparison with results of other researchers is carried out. The basis of the diet of steppe runner in the Khopyor Reserve is made by insects – hymenopterans and bugs.
Представлены результаты исследования питания разноцветной ящурки (Eremias arguta) на севере ареала – в Хо- перском государственном природном заповеднике (Воронежская область, Новохоперский район). Проводится анализ полученных данных и их сравнение с результатами других исследователей. Основу питания разноцвет- ной ящурки в Хоперском заповеднике составляют насекомые – перепончатокрылые и жесткокрылые.
Goncharov, A.G. (2016) -
Гончаров, А.Г. (2016) -
Goncharov, A.G. (2019) -
Background.The Central Black-Earth region is an extensive territory with vari-ous physiographic conditions where the distribution and morphology of the steppe-runner are studied rather incompletely. And in particular, when carrying out this re-search our goal was to specify the habitat of the steppe-runner within the Central Black-Earth region and to study the features of external morphology of this species. Materials and methods. The research was conducted during field seasons of 2007–2017 in the territory of two regions of the Central Black-Earth region – Belgo-rod region and Voronezh region. For studying of external morphological features 28 individuals of the steppe-runner from two localities of Voronezh region were used. In the analysis of variability of proportions of a body and a pholidosis 17 signs were considered. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the Statistica 10.0 program. Results and conclusions. As a result of the conducted research it has been estab-lished that the distribution of the steppe-runner within the Central Black-Earth re-gion coincides with sands of pine-forest terraces of the rivers. The northern border of the species’ habitat in the explored territory passes across Belgorod and Voronezh regions between 50 and 52° n.l. In the analysis of the quantitative and qualitative signs of the steppe-runner was found out that males authentically differ from fe-males in the tail length and the body-tail length ratio. When comparing with east and southern populations, the steppe-runners studied by us have rather smaller sizes of the tail and a smaller number of femoral pores.
Goncharov, A.G. & Lada, G.A. (2021) -
Gong, D.J. & Li, C.I. & Yao, C.Y. (1992) -
Gong, D.J. & Zhou, K. (2000) -
Gong, X. & Liu, J. & Zhou, T. & Song, Q. & Guo, X. (2018) -
The steppe racerunner (Eremias arguta) is one of the most widespread species of the Eurasian racerunners (genus Eremias), inhabiting steppes and semi-deserts of eastern Europe and central Asia from Romania to Mongolia and western China. Historically, 6 subspecies are recognized, and with 2 subspecies occurring in China; however, the taxonomical status of some subspecies is still controversial due in part to their high morphological variability. The present study deals with the intraspecies systematics of 28 samples representing 4 populations in Bole city and Ili River Valley, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China, through morphological comparison and phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene. Cyt b gene sequences of E. arguta available in the GenBank were compiled for comparison with the obtained haplotypes. Tree-based subspecies delimitation was achieved by using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. Bayes factors (BF) were used to test the competing hypotheses for E. arguta by comparing the unconstrained Bayesian tree topology to Bayesian trees with `hard` constraints. The morphological features of steppe racerunner population in Bole city matched the description of those from the Ili River Valley, with specific dorsal pattern characterized by the presence of bright blue or green ocelli in breeding males. Phylogenetic trees congruently indicated that the haplotypes from Bole city belong to the Ili River Valley clade, which represents a separate lineage with undescribed subspecies (E. arguta ssp.). The 3 hypotheses that populations from the Ili River Valley belong to the subspecies E. a. arguta, or E. a. potanini, or E. a. uzbekistanica were rejected with very strong evidence (2lnBF>10), respectively. The Ili River Valley clade is most likely the sister taxon to E. a. uzbekistanica and E. a. darevskii; meanwhile, there is no reliable evidence to reject the alternative hypothesis that E. arguta ssp.is sister to the remaining lineages of E. a. arguta (2 < 2lnBF < 6). In addition, the reciprocal monophyly of E. a. potanini and E. a. arguta was recovered albeit with low bootstrap values and moderate Bayesian posterior probabilities. An alternative topology with samples of E. a. potanini nested within the E. a. arguta clade was not rejected with very strong evidence (6 < 2lnBF < 10). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that:(i) the steppe racerunner in Bole city is not E. a. potanini, but belongs to the Ili River Valley clade and thus represents a new record of E. arguta ssp. in Junggar Basin, Xinjiang, China; (ii) the populations from the Ili River Valley should not be classified as E. a. arguta or E. a. potanini or E. a. uzbekistanica, but belong to a cryptic clade (an undescribed subspecies); (iii) the phylogenetic placement of the novel clade (subspecies) is unclear and needing further clarification with integrative taxonomic approach. Finally, in combination with morphological variability, the validity of the E. a. potanini subspecies was discussed.
Gorbacheff, Z.A. (1934) -
Gordeev, D.A. (2017) -
The tail regeneration frequency in 55 lizards from the Volgograd region was analyzed, among which were 12 steppe-runners (Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773)) and 43 sand lizards (Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758). The following cases of tail regenerates were observed: 0) a normal tail; 1) regeneration in the distal third; 2) a tail regenerated from the middle part; and 3) autotomy near the base (the proximal third). The majority of the lizards had normal tails (60.0% of E. arguta and 83.2/57.1% of L. agilis in females/males). Only 16.7% of the steppe-runners had regenerated tails in the distal part whereas 8.4% of females and 28.6% of males had autotomy with subsequent regeneration in the proximal third of the tail; 5.6% of females and 14.3% of males had regenerated autotomy in the distal part, and 2.8% of females had it in the middle part of the tail. Two lizards with bifurcated tails were found and described: a male of E. arguta and a female of L. agilis. A case of complicated abnormality of tail regeneration in a male of L. agilis is also described. An X-ray study has shown that caudal bifurcation may appear as a result of both the primary and secondary (in the cartilage tube) regeneration.
Гордеев Д.А. (2017) -
Приводится анализ частоты регенерации хвоста у 55 ящериц, из которых 12 особей разноцветной ящурки (Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773)) и 43 - прыткой ящерицы (Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758) из Волгоградской области. Наблюдались следующие случаи наличия регенератов хвоста: 0) нормальный хвост; 1) регенерация в дистальной трети; 2) хвост регенерирован из середины хвоста; 3) автотомия вблизи основания (проксимальной трети). Большинство ящериц имело нормальные хвосты (60.0% E. arguta и 83.2/57.1% L. agilis самки/самцы). Лишь 16.7% особей разноцветной ящурки были с регенерированными хвостами в дистальной его части, тогда как у 8.4% самок и 28.6% самцов произошла автотомия с последующей регенерацией в проксимальной трети хвоста; у 5.6% самок и 14.3% самцов - в дистальной части и у 2.8% самок посередине хвоста. Выявлено и описано две особи с бифуркацией хвоста: один самец E. arguta и одна самка L. agilis. Также описан случай сложного нарушения регенерации хвоста у самца L. agilis. Рентгенографическое исследование показало, что каудальная бифуркация может возникать как результат первичной, так и вторичной (на хрящевой трубке) регенерации.
Gorelov, M.S. (1991) -
Gorelov, R.A. & Bakiev, A.G. (2009) -
The data on species structure of lizards of Hvalynsky forest (Hvalynsky dis trict, Saratov region), Krasnosamarsky forest (Kinelsky district, Samara region), the Buzuluksky pine forest (Borsky district of the Samara region and Buzuluksky district of the Orenburg region) are presented.
Grechko, V.V. et al. (1997) -
Multiple band patterns of DNA repeats in
the 20–500-nucleotide range can be detected by digesting
genomic DNA with short—cutting restriction endonucleases,
followed by end labeling of the restriction
fragments and fractionation in nondenaturing polyacrylamide
gels. We call such band patterns obtained from
genomic DNA ‘‘taxonprints’’ (Fedorov et al. 1992).
Here we show that taxonprints for the taxonomic groups
studied (mammals, reptiles, fish, insects—altogether
more than 50 species) have the following properties: (1)
All individuals from the same species have identical taxonprints.
(2) Taxonprint bands can be subdivided into
those specific for a single species and those specific for
groups of closely related species, genera, and even families.
(3) Each restriction endonuclease produces unique
band patterns; thus, five to ten restriction enzymes (about
100 bands) may be sufficient for a statistical treatment of
phylogenetic relationships based on polymorphisms of
restriction endinuclease sites. We demonstrate that taxonprint
analysis allows one to distinguish closely related
species and to establish the degree of similarity among
species and among genera. These characteristics make to use this phenomenon for phylogenetic aims (Cooke
1975; Christie and Skinner 1979; Brown and Dover
1979, 1980; Elizur et al. 1982; Hembelen et al. 1982;
Buckland 1983; Dandieu et al. 1984; Lima de Faria et al.
1984; Shubina and Mednikov 1986; Turner et al. 1991),
but this approach has not been extensively applied. In
this paper we have reexamined the problem on the basis
of our own preliminary results, partly published in Russian
journals, confirming the ideas about possible correlations
between evolution of DNA repeats and speciation
(Fedorov et al. 1992; Grechko et al. 1993; Potapov and
We have demonstrated that the modified method designated
‘‘DNA taxonprint’’ (Fedorov et al. 1992) can be
effectively used for revealing species—specific genomic
markers in different taxonomic groups. These taxonprint
markers are found to be helpful for evaluation of the
degree of species similarity between species, genera, and
families. More than 50 species from different taxa were
Günther, A. (1872) -
Guo, X. & Dai, X. & Chen, D. & Papenfuss, T.J. & Ananjeva, N.B. & Melnikov, D.A. & Wang, Y. (2011) -
Eremias, or racerunners, is a widespread lacertid genus occurring in China, Mongolia, Korea, Central Asia, Southwest Asia and Southeast Europe. It has been through a series of taxonomic revisions, but the phylogenetic relationships among the species and subgenera remain unclear. In this study, a frequently studied region of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA was used to (i) reassess the phylogenetic relationships of some Eremias species, (ii) test if the viviparous species form a monophyletic group, and (iii) estimate divergence time among lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular-clock approach. The resulting phylogeny supports monophyly of Eremias sensu Szczerbak and a clade comprising Eremias, Acanthodactylus and Latastia. An earlier finding demonstrating monophyly of the subgenus Pareremias is corroborated, with Eremias argus being the sister taxon to Eremias brenchleyi. We present the first evidence that viviparous species form a monophyletic group. In addition, Eremias przewalskii is nested within Eremias multiocellata, suggesting that the latter is likely a paraphyletic species or a species complex. Eremias acutirostris and Eremias persica form a clade that is closely related to the subgenus Pareremias. However, the subgenera Aspidorhinus, Scapteira, and Rhabderemias seem not to be monophyletic, respectively. The Bayesian divergence-time estimation suggests that Eremias originated at about 9.9 million years ago (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 7.6 to 12 Ma), and diversified from Late Miocene to Pleistocene. Specifically, the divergence time of the subgenus Pareremias was dated to about 6.3 million years ago (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 5.3 to 8.5 Ma), which suggests that the diversification of this subgenus might be correlated with the evolution of an East Asian monsoon climate triggered by the rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau approximately 8 Ma.
Guo, X.-G. & Chen, D.-L. & Wan, H.-F. & Wang, Y.-Z. (2010) -
The lacertid genus Eremias Fitzinger in Wiegmann,1834,consists of approximately 36 species of racerunners,distributed throughout the desert and semi-desert regions from northern China,Mongolia,Korea,central and southwest Asia to southeastern Europe.This short review represents the history of taxonomic studies in the genus Eremias,including affirmation of the genus and its species,distribution characteristics,phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography.Traditional taxonomic methods,as well as new approaches(mtDNA analysis) are discussed.Future potential research projects on Eremias are outlined,such as phylogeny,phylogeography and speciation process.
郭宪光 陈达丽 万宏富 王跃招 (2010) -
由于各种原因，麻蜥属的分类仍较混乱。本文对麻蜥属的系统学研究历史做了系统回顾，从属、亚属、种 等各级分类水平叙述了其研究历史，包括属的建立与订正、物种组成、地理分布特征，总结了通过外部形态和分子 等研究手段，在分类、系统发育、生物地理等研究层次上所取得的成果，在此基础上提出需要深入研究麻蜥属的系 统发育、谱系地理和物种形成机制等，包括该属分布格局与青藏高原隆升、天山隆升及中亚荒漠化和第四纪冰期的 关系。
Guo, Z.-G. & Xu, X.-F. (2008) -
Eremias argus often produces two clutches per breeding season in Chuzhou, Anhui Province, with females laying 2 to 5 eggs per clutch. Clutch size and clutch mass was positively correlated to female size (SVL); relative clutch mass was independent of female size; egg was independent of clutch size. There was no inter-clutch difference in clutch size, clutch mass and egg mass. Egg length was positively correlated to egg width. Egg length was negatively correlated to clutch size; and egg width was independent of clutch size. Females increased reproductive output mainly through increasing clutch size.
Habeeb, I.N. (2018) -
n this study the Check list lizards of Iraq were investigated. by reviewing the old and new data as well as carrying out field work and study of material in the Natural history Museum of Iraq as well as many departments and colleges in various universities, are discussed.Further, various relevant websites in the Internet specialized lizards. I found in this study 7 families, 27 genera and 50 species distribution in the different parts of Iraq. During this study I found Asaccus saffinae (Afrasiab & Mohamad, 2009) the first time in SheraSwar Cave in the Saffine Mountain near Erbil, Kurdistan and the first record new species in Iraq and found Ptyodactylus puiseuxi (Boutan, 1893) the first time in same area . Also found Carinatogecko heteropholis(Minton, S. Anderson, and J. A. Anderson, 1970) Which is one of the endemic species in western Iran in the Erbil western Zagros foothills in Erbil. Trapelus ruderatus (Olivier, 1804) found in the central of Iraq. Cyrtopodion scaber (Heyden, 1827) Previously found in southern Iraq But recently also recorded in the center and northern Iraq. Varanus nesterovi (Bohme, Ehrlich, Milto, Orlov & Scholz, 2015) new species in the northern of Iraq. Lacerta media (Lantz & Cyren, 1758) found newly in central and northern of Iraq and Timon kurdistanicus, Apathya cappadocica (Werner, 1902) (Suchow, 1936) northern of Iraq. I note the two families were finding Previously in Iraq and they did not record any new genus and species in Iraq.
Han, X. & Hao, X. & Wang, Y. & Wang, X. & Teng, L. & Liu, Z. & Zhang, F. & Zhang, Q. (2020) -
Reptiles are especially vulnerable to climate warming because their behavior, physiology, and life history are highly dependent on environmental temperature. In this study, we envisaged new probable mechanisms underlying the high vulnerability of lizards, wherein heat exposure induces oxidative stress and leads to immunosuppression. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a warming experiment on a lizard (Eremias multiocellata) from a desert steppe in Inner Mongolia from May to September using open-top chambers set up in their natural habitat and compared the components of oxidative stress (antioxidant ability [Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], extent of oxidative damage [malondialdehyde (MDA) content]), and immunocompetence (white blood cells [WBC] counts and immunoglobulin M [IgM] expression) between the warming and control groups. At the end of the experiment, the warming treatment did not affect the survival rate of the lizards. However, MDA content, but not SOD activity, was significantly higher in the warming group than in the control group. The WBC counts and IgM expression were significantly lower in the warming group than in the control group. Our results verified our hypothesis and provided novel cues and methods for the investigation of the mechanisms behind the high probability of extinction of other ectotherms under warming conditions.
Hao, Q.-L. & Liu, H.-X. & Ji, X. (2006) -
We used the Mongolian racerunner Eremias argus as a model animal to evaluate the effects of constant versus fluctuating incubation temperatures on hatching success and hatchling phenotypes. Eggs were incubated under four constant [24, 27, 30 and 33 (±0.3) °C] and one fluctuating temperature regimes. Hatching success did not differ among treatments, and incubation temperature did not affect the sexual phenotype of hatchlings. Incubation length decreased exponentially as incubation temperature increased, and eggs incubated at fluctuating temperatures took a longer time to complete development than did those incubated at constant temperatures with the same mean. Of the hatchling phenotypes examined, body dry mass, carcass dry mass, residual yolk dry mass and locomotor performance of hatchlings were more likely to be affected by incubation temperature. Overall, locomotor performance was best in the low temperature treatments (24 °C and 27 °C) and worst in the high temperature treatment (33 °C), with the moderate temperature treatments (30 °C and fluctuating temperatures) in between. Our data show that: (1) daily exposure of eggs to extreme temperatures that are potentially lethal to embryos for brief periods does not have detectable adverse effects on hatching success and morphological phenotypes in E. argus; and (2) thermal fluctuations exert no positive effects on locomotor performance of hatchlings but influence incubation length differently than constant temperatures with the same mean.
Hao, W. & Zhang, Y. & Xie, Y. & Guo, B. & Chang, J. & Li, J. & Hu, P. & Wan, H. (2018) -
Enantioselective toxicokinetics, accumulation, and toxicity of myclobutanil were investigated by oral exposure of myclobutanil enantiomers to lizards. After a single oral administration, the absorption half-lives () and elimination half-lives () were in the range of 0.133–14.828 and 3.641–17.682 h, respectively. The absorption and elimination half-lives of (+)-myclobutanil showed no significant differences from those of (-)-myclobutanil in lizard blood, whereas preferential enrichment of (-)-enantiomer was observed in the liver, fat, skin, intestine, lung and kidney. In the bioaccumulation experiments, the residue of (-)-myclobutanil was detected in most tissues at 7, 14, and 28 days, while (+)-myclobutanil was found only in lizard skin, at a concentration lower than that of (-)-myclobutanil. Thus, (-)-myclobutanil was preferentially accumulated in lizards. The transcriptional responses of metabolic enzyme genes indicated that cytochrome P450 1a1 (cyp1a1), cyp2d3, cyp2d6, cyp3a4 and cyp3a7 played a crucial role in the metabolism of (+)-myclobutanil, whereas cyp1a1, cyp2d3, cyp2d6, cyp2c8, and cyp3a4 contributed to the metabolism of (-)-myclobutanil. The difference in metabolism pathways may be a reason for the enantioselectivity of myclobutanil in lizard. Myclobutanil also affected the expression of antioxidant enzyme genes, and the (+)-myclobutanil treatment might produce higher oxidative stress in lizard liver when compared with its antipode. Hepatic histopathological changes such as hepatocellular hypertrophy, nuclear pyknosis, vacuolation, and non-zonal macrovesicular lipid accumulation were observed in the liver of lizards for both (+)-myclobutanil and (-)-myclobutanil treatments. Thus, myclobutanil could affect lizard liver upon multiple exposure. The findings of this study provide specific insights into the enantioselective metabolism and toxicity of chiral triazole fungicides in lizards.
Hao, W. & Zhang, Y. & Xu, P. & Xie, Y. & Li, W. & Wang, H. (2021) -
The enantioselective accumulation, elimination and metabolism of fenbuconazole in lizards were determined following a single-dose (25 mg/kgbw) exposure to racemic or enantiomeric fenbuconazole. Accumulation of fenbuconazole was found in lizard fat with rac-form > enantiopure enantiomers. The enantiomer fractions (EFs) were higher than 0.5 in the blood, while EFs were less than 0.5 in the liver, brain, skin and stomach. There was conversion from (+)-fenbuconazole to (−)-fenbuconazole in lizard liver and conversion from (−)-fenbuconazole to (+)-fenbuconazole in lizard liver and blood. The results showed that enantioselective accumulation appeared in lizards, but the direction varied among blood and different tissues. The elimination half-lives (t1/2) of (+)-fenbuconazole were higher than those of (−)-fenbuconazole in the blood and liver, suggesting that (−)-fenbuconazole eliminated faster than (+)-fenbuconazole in these tissues. In addition, both (+)-fenbuconazole and (−)-fenbuconazole eliminated faster in the liver and stomach exposed to racemate than those exposed to enantiopure enantiomers. On the contrary, the form of racemate decreased the elimination rate of fenbuconazole in lizard fat. Synergistic elimination may occur when two enantiomers coexisted in lizard liver and stomach, while the racemate produced antagonistic elimination in lizard fat. Simultaneously, three metabolites, RH-6467, RH-9029&RH-9030 and keto-mchlorophenol, were discovered in lizard liver. Only two metabolites, RH-6467 and RH-9029&RH-9030, were found in lizard blood. RH-9029&RH-9030 were the major metabolites. The discovered enantiomers of (+)-fenbuconazole metabolites were different from those of (−)-fenbuconazole. The findings of this study may provide a better understanding of the enantioselective behaviors of chiral triazole fungicides in reptiles.
Hao, X. & Zou, T.T. & Han, X.Z. & Du, W.G. (2021) -
1.As postulated by life‐history theory, not all life‐history traits can be maximized simultaneously. In ectothermic animals, climate warming is predicted to increase growth rates, but at a cost to overall life span. Maternal effects are expected to mediate this life‐history trade‐off, but such effects have not yet been explicitly elucidated. 2. To understand maternal effects on the life‐history responses to climate warming in lizard offspring, we conducted a manipulative field experiment on a desert‐dwelling viviparous lacertid lizard Eremias multiocellata, using open‐top chambers in a factorial design (maternal warm climate and maternal present climate treatments × offspring warm climate and offspring present climate treatments). 3. We found that the maternal warm climate treatment had little impact on the physiological and life‐history traits of adult females (i.e. metabolic rate, reproductive output, growth and survival). However, the offspring warm climate treatment significantly affected offspring growth, and both maternal and offspring warm climate treatments interacted to affect offspring survival. 4. Offspring from the warm climate treatment grew faster than those from the present climate treatment. However, the offspring warm climate treatment significantly decreased the survival rate of offspring from maternal present climate treatment, but not for those from the maternal warm climate treatment. 5. Our study demonstrates that maternal effects mediate the trade‐off between growth and survival of offspring lizards, allowing them to grow fast without a concurrent cost of low survival rate (short life span). These findings stress the importance of adaptive maternal effects in buffering the impact of climate warming on organisms, which may help us to accurately predict the vulnerability of populations and species to future warming climates.
Harris, D.J. & Arnold, E.N. & Thomas, R.H. (1998) -
DNA sequences from parts of the 12S, 16S and cytochrome b mitochondrial genes, which totalled 1049 aligned base pairs, were used to estimate the relationships of 49 species of Lacertidae, including representatives of 19 out of the 23 recognized genera and 23 species of the paraphyletic genus Lacerta. These data were used, together with morphological information, to estimate the relationships within the family. Molecular evidence corroborates the monophyletic status of many genera and species groups originally based on morphology. It indicates that Psammodromus forms a clade with Gallotia, which is the sister taxon of all other lacertids. These comprise three units: the primarily Afrotropical armatured group; the largely Oriental Takydromus; and the west Palaearctic Lacerta and its derivatives, Podarcis and Algyroides. Morphology also supports the first three assemblages, but suggests that they are derived from a paraphyletic Lacerta. Within Lacerta and its allies, DNA sequence analysis corroborates the affinity of some members of each of the subgenera Lacerta s. str. and Timon, and of the L. saxicola group. It also supports the relationship of L. monticola, L. bonnali and L. horvathi, and suggests that the L. parva–L. fraasi clade and L. brandti are not related to Psammodromus–Gallotia, as morphology indicates, but instead are associated respectively with the L. danfordi and L. saxicola groups. DNA sequence data provide additional evidence that the eastern Arabian `Lacerta` jayakari and `L.` cyanura are members of the armatured clade and also sister species. Our analysis supports an origin for present lacertids in west Eurasia. The armatured clade invaded Africa, probably in the mid-Miocene, spreading widely and evolving increasingly xeric-adapted forms, one lineage of which later moved back into the Palaearctic. `Lacerta` jayakari and `L.` cyanura are assigned to Omanosaura, Lutz and Mayer 1986. The name Gallotiinae Cano, Baez, Lopez-Jurado and Ortega, 1984 is available for the Gallotia–Psammodromus clade, Eremiainae Shcherbak 1975 for the armatured clade and Lacertinae for Lacerta, Podarcis and Algyroides. Two new subgenera of Lacerta are proposed here: Caucasilacerta for L. saxicola and its allies, and Parvilacerta for L. parva and L. fraasi.
Hellmich, W. (1969) -
Hemmerling, J. & Meusel, W. & Obst, F.J. (1974) -
This publication on the herpetofauna oft he Caucasus is a compilation oft wo articles published in 1967 and 1970 (Zool. Abh. SStaatl. Mus. Tierk. Dresden 29, pp. 85-93 and Aquarien terrarien 17, pp. 120-123.
Hillmann, B. (2003) -
Den Iran als Urlaubsziel zu wählen, dies dürfte wohl den wenigsten Deutschen einfallen. Dabei verfügt dieses riesige Land über eine reichhaltige Kultur und ist auch unter herpetologischen Gesichtspunkten sehr interessant. Andererseits bietet der Iran fast keine touristische Infrastruktur und ist dem Tourismus auch nicht wirklich aufgeschlossen - angefangen dabei, dass Kreditkarten nicht akzeptiert werden, bis hin zur Kopftuchpflicht für alle Frauen, egal welcher Nationalität oder Glaubensrichtung sie angehören. Dies alles schreckte uns jedoch nicht davon ab, per Fahrrad ca. 3600 Kilometer von Istanbul bis nach Tehran zu fahren, weitestgehend entlang der alten Seidenstrasse.
Hipsley, C. (2012) -
The evolutionary diversification of many terrestrial vertebrate groups is strongly linked to climatic events in the Cenozoic, the period from 65 Million years ago to today when modern animals first appeared. I investigated the effects of Cenozoic climate change on the taxonomic and morphological diversification of the Old World lizard family Lacertidae, with particular emphasis on the African radiation. African lacertids exhibit an unusual pattern of diversification, in which their highest species richness occurs in deserts north and south of the equator, despite being spread throughout the continent. This disparity is particularly surprising given that desert lacertids are thought to be evolutionarily younger than their mesic-dwelling relatives, suggesting increased diversification rates in arid habitats. To identify the evolutionary factors underlying this pattern, I use a combination of phylogenetic, morphological and ecological techniques. In Chapter 1, I apply Bayesian methods and fossil-based calibrations to molecular sequence data to construct a time-calibrated phylogeny for Lacertidae. I estimate that the family arose in the early Cenozoic, with the majority of their African radiation occurring in the Eocene and Oligocene. In Chapter 2, I describe changes in lacertid body shape across biomes and substrates, and find widespread morphological convergence in similar habitat types. I suggest that in addition to foraging demands, fluctuating and extreme climatic conditions, largely driven by precipitation and temperature, contribute to morphological convergence across independent arid-dwelling clades. Finally, I test if ancestral transitions in ecology, morphology, and rates of diversification temporally coincide with paleoclimatic events in the Cenozoic. I use High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography to characterize changes in the skull related to life in arid habitats, and apply maximum likelihood methods to test if the origins of those traits temporally coincide with significant shifts in habitat, diversification rates and climatic changes. My results show that African lacertids experienced three major peaks in diversification, accompanied by the evolution of suites of arid-adapted morphological traits. These changes coincide with climatic shifts in Africa, including the transition from closed forests to open grasslands and savanna in the late Oligocene, prior to the peak temperatures of the mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, and following the formation of the Benguela current leading to hyper-aridity in southern Africa. I conclude that deserts are important centers for reptile evolution, but that expected changes in climate due to global warming may outpace the ability of arid-dwelling species to adapt and persist in the future.
Hipsley, C. & Himmelmann L. & Metzler D. & Müller J. (2009) -
Background: Although current molecular clock methods offer greater flexibility in modelling
evolutionary events, calibration of the clock with dates from the fossil record is still problematic
for many groups. Here we implement several new approaches in molecular dating to estimate the
evolutionary ages of Lacertidae, an Old World family of lizards with a poor fossil record and
uncertain phylogeny. Four different models of rate variation are tested in a new program for
Bayesian phylogenetic analysis called TreeTime, based on a combination of mitochondrial and
nuclear gene sequences. We incorporate paleontological uncertainty into divergence estimates by
expressing multiple calibration dates as a range of probabilistic distributions. We also test the
reliability of our proposed calibrations by exploring effects of individual priors on posterior
Results: According to the most reliable model, as indicated by Bayes factor comparison, modern
lacertids arose shortly after the K/T transition and entered Africa about 45 million years ago, with
the majority of their African radiation occurring in the Eocene and Oligocene. Our findings indicate
much earlier origins for these clades than previously reported, and we discuss our results in light
of paleogeographic trends during the Cenozoic.
Conclusion: This study represents the first attempt to estimate evolutionary ages of a specific
group of reptiles exhibiting uncertain phylogenetic relationships, molecular rate variation and a
poor fossil record. Our results emphasize the sensitivity of molecular divergence dates to fossil
calibrations, and support the use of combined molecular data sets and multiple, well-spaced dates
from the fossil record as minimum node constraints. The bioinformatics program used here,
TreeTime, is publicly available, and we recommend its use for molecular dating of taxa faced with
Hipsley, C.A. & Miles, D.B. & Müller, J. (2014) -
While global variation in taxonomic diversity is strongly linked to latitude, the extent to which morphological disparity follows geographical gradients is less well known. We estimated patterns of lineage diversification, morphological disparity and rates of phenotypic evolution in the Old World lizard family Lacertidae, which displays a nearly inverse latitudinal diversity gradient with decreasing species richness towards the tropics. We found that lacertids exhibit relatively constant rates of lineage accumulation over time, although the majority of morphological variation appears to have originated during recent divergence events, resulting in increased partitioning of disparity within subclades. Among subclades, tropical arboreal taxa exhibited the fastest rates of shape change while temperate European taxa were the slowest, resulting in an inverse relationship between latitudinal diversity and rates of phenotypic evolution. This pattern demonstrates a compelling counterexample to the ecological opportunity theory of diversification, suggesting an uncoupling of the processes generating species diversity and morphological differentiation across spatial scales.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S: & Yousefi, M. (2016) -
In north Khorasan province, Iran, we compared the effectiveness of two types of traps for collecting reptiles: funnel traps and pitfall traps. Three stations were monitored over three 10-day periods and in total 544 individuals (including 200 re-captures) belonging to 5 species and 4 families of lizards (Lacertidae) were collected. Funnel traps with 280 captures were more efficient than pitfall traps with 264 captures, but the differences between the two traps are not significant. Three species were captured most often in the three different stations respectively: station 1, Bunopus crassicauda (22% relative frequency); station 2, Eremias fasciata (29% relative frequency); and station 3, Trapelus agilis (32% relative frequency). Shannon species richness indices were higher for pitfall than funnel traps (i.e., 1.45 vs. 1.40), but the difference was not significant. Pitfall traps were better for capturing species that search widely for food, while the funnel traps preferentially captured species that climb plants, such as Trapelus agilis. We recommend using both types of trap to capture the various types of species in any one region.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Oraei, H. & Khosravani, A. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2013) -
During a field survey in the Sistan region of Iran in October 2011, habitat of Eremias acutirostris was surveyed and four specimens of the species were collected. We report a locality situated along the road from Zabol to Doost Mohammad, near the town of Bonjar. The fragile habitat, consist of immobile sand dunes, is situated in proximity to an industrial zone, placing this remnant population under threat of pollution and other anthropogenic edge effects. We call the Zabol Environmental Protection Agency to act and insure the species’ future in Iran.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Rastegar Pouyani, E. (2013) -
Eremias lalezharica MORAVEC, 1994 was until recently known only from its terra typica near Lalehzar village in the Lalehzar Mountains, in the center of Kerman province, Iran. During a recent survey, a new locality was found for Eremias lalezharica on the road from Jiroft to Darb-e Behesht, in the Babgorgi region, 100 km to the south-east of the terra typica along the Lalehzar Mountains, with coordinates 29º 05’ N and 57º 32’ E, and an elevation of 2890 m (8670 ft). This new locality is also mountainous with relatively rich vegetation.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Rastegar Pouyani, E. & Keyvanloo Shahrestanaki, A. & Yousefi, M. & Zarrintab, M. (2012) -
In Iran Eremias grammica is a critically endangered lacertid lizard only known from a single population in the east of Khorasan Razavi province. During a new survey of this area (September 2011) it has become clear that this population of Eremias grammica no longer exists, due to habitat destruction. However, a new population of Eremias grammica was found in similar sand dunes around Jangal city, and habitat protection is suggested.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2013) -
Eremias intermedia and Eremias lineolata are two species from the genus Eremias that are found in the Sarakhs region (at the border of Iran and Turkmenistan) (N: 36º 19’ 32.4” ; E: 61º 08’ 35.4”; altitude: 330 m). That particular region has very unfavorable conditions for lizards. Aridity and Human activity (agriculture) affected on their habitat. A water channel was being constructed to carry water to the city and for this reason, machines were employed which destroyed the sand dunes.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Aliabadian, M. (2016) -
Eremias strauchi strauchi and Eremias strauchi kopetdaghica are genetically and morphologically distinct and are distributed allopatrically in northeastern and northwestern Iran. E. s. strauchi is distinguishable by having green spots on lateral parts of the body, while E. s. kopetdaghica is characterized by white spots and irregular black dots on lateral parts of the body. Recent molecular studies have suggested that these are two distinct species, but other types of analyses leave their classification unclear. In this study, we evaluated their taxonomic status using additional data (including ecological niches) to confirm the hypothesis that they are two species. All known records of their occurrence were employed to predict and evaluate the suitable areas where they may be expected to be found in Iran. We then performed niche similarity tests (niche identity and background tests) and point-based analyses to compare their ecological niches and explain ecological differentiation. Niche models of E. s. strauchi and E. s. kopetdaghica had good results and powerful performance based on high area under the curve (AUC) values [E. s. strauchi = 0.992, standard deviation (SD) = ± 0.008; E. s. kopetdaghica = 0.978, SD = ± 0.032]. Ecological differentiation has been found across the entire range, indicating that ecological differentiation had an important role in species differentiation. Environmental conditions for the species diverged along environmental variables, as precipitation of coldest quarter for the “Strauch” subspecies and precipitation of warmest quarter for the “Kopet dagh” subspecies were most important in determining habitat suitability, respectively. These two factors are important in niche differentiation between the two species and influenced their genetic divergence. Finally, our results confirmed the niche differentiation between E. s. strauchi and E. s. kopetdaghica and added new insights into the taxonomic distinction between E. s. strauchi and E. s. kopetdaghica.
Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Yousefi, M. & Rastegar Pouyani, E. & Khani, A. (2013) -
Huang, X. & Wu, H. & Tu, X. & Zhang, Z. & Su, H. & Shi, Y. & Wang, G. & Cao, G. & Nong, X. & Zhang, Z. (2015) -
Outbreaks of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) often cause serious ecological damage. Recently, there has been interest in using natural enemies of grasshopper for their biological control. This study examined the biology and predation on grasshoppers by Eremias argus, a common lizard in Inner Mongolia. Its developmental duration and life history are consistent with adaptation to grasshopper phenology. The diet structure of E. argus included grasshoppers, beetles, ants, leafhoppers, moths, bees and spiders. A positive correlation between E. argus population numbers and grasshopper population numbers was highly significant. We built models describing the functional response and intraspecific competition for E. argus adults. The functional feeding response of E. argus on grasshopper was classed as Holling type III. The maximum number of grasshoppers consumed by female and male adults were 11.2 and 7.0 individuals per day, respectively. Predatory ability was strongest in female adults, with the second and third instars of Oedaleusasiaticus preferred. The predation ratios(E) of E. argus on grasshoppers declined with increasing lizard density, especially for female adult E. argus. E. argus could play an important role in grasshopper control and maintaining a population of E. argus in the grassland ecosystem could effectively control low-density grasshopper populations on grassland. Suggestions on how E. argus could fit into an IPM programme for biological control of grasshopper are discussed.
Ineich, I. & Doronin, I. (2017) -
Ineich, I. & Doronin, I. & Lescure, J. (2017) -
The life and work of the Alsatian Louis Amédée Lantz (1886-1953), a pioneer of European herpetology. A trained and professional research-chemist, the Alsatian Louis Amédée Lantz was an active and particularly dynamic herpetologist. His residence of nearly twelve years in Russia enabled him to make several field trips to regions such as the Caucasus and Iran. He always carried with him a home made telescopic net that he used to catch lizards. That net became symbolic of Lantz for most people around him. He realized significant herpetological collections mainly deposited in the Museum of the Zoology Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. Soon after the Russian Revolution in 1917, he had to leave the country and stayed for a few years in France before joining England. During this period, Lantz visited the French Pyrenees and the Mediterranean border (Hyeres Islands, Bandol), enabling him to discover for the first time oviparous populations of common lizard and also to describe a new species of lizard from the French Pyrenees. Lantz is also at the origin of the discovery of unisexual reproduction by parthenogenesis in reptiles. His collaboration with the Swedish amateur herpetologist Otto Cyrén, whom he met through the German herpetologist Willy Wolterstorff, was particularly successful throughout his career. Lantz died at the age of 66 years, in Switzerland, as he was about to join the team of herpetologists at the Natural History Museum in Paris.
Ineich, I. & Doronin, I.V. (2019) -
Several recent papers have reviewed the life and work of French herpetologist Louis Amédée Lantz. They have detailed the composition of his collections deposited in several museums. However, since then, several other im- portant specimens from his collections have come to light. We here identify the syntypes of Eremias zarudnyi Lantz, 1928, which were located in Russia. We provide data on the type series, an English translation of the French description of E. zarudnyi and designate and describe a lectotype for the species.
Ineich, I. & Doronin, I.V. & Cheylan, M. & Campbell, P.D. (2019) -
Several recent papers have reviewed the life and work of French herpetologist Louis Amédée Lantz. They have detailed the composition of his collections deposited in several museums. However, since then, several other important specimens from his collections deposited at the Natural History Museum (NHM, UK) have come to light and we here present all of them in detail. We discovered paralectotypes of Lacerta saxicola obscura Lantz & Cyrén (BMNH 19220.127.116.11–7), syntypes of Lacerta boemica Sukhov (BMNH 1918.104.22.168–30, BMNH 1965.337–342) and Lacerta viridis media Lantz & Cyrén (BMNH 1922.214.171.124, 1966.512). We also identified numerous specimens from the French Mediterranean islands in Lantz’s collection deposited at the NHM, some of which represent the first reported specimens of their species from certain islands. We here provide data on all these specimens. We also place the Mediterranean island specimens from the Lantz collection in their historical context and emphasize the historical and taxonomic value of these collections.
Inukai, T. (1938) -
Ivanov, V.G. & Federova, T.A. (1973) -
Ivanova, N.N. (1985) -
Jablonski, D. & Koleska, D. (2017) -
Jablonski, D. & Regan, J.M. & Holzheusen, C. & Farooqi, J. & Basit, A. & Masroor, R. (2019) -
This study provides observation on 21 species of amphibians and reptiles obtained during various field trips in Afghanistan from 2007 to 2018. The core of this study is distributional data collected mostly by the second author of this paper that were systematically evaluated. Our records show a notable expansion of the current distribution range for several species and highlight the need for more extensive further sampling within the entire country. The first record of Cyrtopodion agamuroides (Nikolsky, 1900) complex for Afghanistan is presented here, increasing the number of herpetofauna in the country to 117 species.
Jan, G. (1865) -
Jeong, J.-C. & Song J.-Y. (2010) -
In order to analyze food item of Eremias argus collected in Taeanhaean national park, we analyzed six
specimens, 4 females and 2 males, and these specimens maesured the morphological characteristics such as Snout-vent
length (SVL), Head width (HW) to 0.01 mm using digital caliper. Additionally we analyzed statistical analysis by SPSS
11.0 program. As a results, Food item of E. argus appeared 8 orders, 13 families in stomach content, then food item
composed Lepidoptera (30.6%), Araneae (20.4%), Dermaptera (18.4%), Amphipoda (10.2%), Coleoptera (8.2%),
Homoptera (6.1%), Orthoptera (4.1%) and Neuroptera (2.0%).
정종철, 송재영 (2010) -
태안해안국립공원에 서식하는 표범장지뱀의 먹이 구성을 알아보기 위해 암컷 4개체와 수컷 2개체 등 총 6개 체를 대상으로 먹이원과 체장, 두장 등 형태형질을 측정하였다. 또한, SPSS 11.0을 이용하여 통계분석을 수행하였 다. 그 결과 위에서 총 8목 13과의 종이 확인되었으며, 목별로는 나비목 (30.6%), 거미목(20.4%), 집게벌레목(18.4%), 단각목(10.2%), 딱정벌레목(8.2%), 매미목(6.1%), 메뚜기목(4.1%) , 풀잠자리목(2.0%) 순으로 나타났다.
Jeriomtschenko V.K. & Panfilov A.M. & Tzarinenko E.I. (1992) -
Jiang, Z. et al. (2016) -
Jin, S.-D. & Han, S.-W. & Shin, H.C. & Paik, W.-K. & Lee, H. & Kim, I.-K. (2013) -
Eremias argus, which specifically inhabits riverside or coastal sand dune, is an endangered species designated by the Ministry of Environment of Korea because it has been drastically decreasing due to the destruction of habitat and the human activities. Therefore, it is required to prepare a countermeasure for the strategic and systematic solutions for the conservation of the E. argus. This study analyzed mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of E. argus inhabiting Yoobu-do island and Sohwang sand dune. This study aims to provide fundamental genetic information through phylogeographical analysis between two regions. Of 11 individuals of E. argus used in the analysis, the total 652~656 bp of mtDNA COI genes for 3 individuals of Takydromus wolteri as `out group` were analyzed. Intraspecific genetic distance for E. argus was shown to be the same result of 0.000. As for T. wolteri, it was 0.005, showing very similar result. T. wolteri inhabiting Gapcheon stream in Daejeon metropolitan city was found to be the highest intraspecific genetic distance (0.008). The NJ tree of E. argus and T. wolteri indicated there was almost no genetic difference between habitat for E. argus. For T. wolteri, however, there was slight difference between the individuals inhabiting Yoobu-do island and those inhabiting Gapcheon stream in Daejeon metropolitan city. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare conservation strategies to increase genetic diversity of E. argus in Yoobudo island in the future because it is highly presumed that the population of E. argus in Yoobu-do island have been flown from nearby coastal sand dune.
Joger, U. & Dujsebayeva, T. & Belyalov, O. V. & Chikin, Y. & Guicking, D. & Grachev, Y. A. (2012) -
Kafash, A. & Ashrafi, S. & Ohler, A. (2018) -
Little is known about altitudinal distribution of lizards in Iran. In the present study we studied distribution pattern of members of family Lacertidae along the eleveatinal gradient in Iran. To determine environmental drivers of distribution pattern of 48 lizard species, all known valid members of family Lacertidae, along elevational gradient in Iran. Firstly, we classified Iran digital elevation model (DEM) based on 100m intervals, that resulted in 56 altitudinal bands and number of species in each band was recorded. Secondly, we extracted mean value of following variables; altitude, slop, area, solar radiation index (SRI), normalized differences vegetation index (NDVI), annual precipitation, precipitation of wettest month, precipitation of driest month precipitation, precipitation of wettest quarter, precipitation of driest quarter, and precipitation of warmest quarter, and using VIF measure correlated variables were removed. Finally, we performed a multiple regression and found that area and precipitation of warmest quarter are the most important drivers of distribution pattern of family Lacertidae along elevational gradient in Iran. General distribution pattern of family Lacertidae was unimodal and maximum number of species living from 1475 m to 1675 m.
انوشه کفاش؛ سهراب اشرفی ؛ آنماری اوهلر (1397) -
اطلاعات اندکی در ارتباط با توزیع ارتفاعی سوسماران در ایران در دسترس است. در حالی که تعیین مناطق ارتفاعی با بیشترین تعداد گونه میتواند برای انتخاب مناطق حفاظت شده مفید باشد. در مطالعه حاضر الگوی توزیع ارتفاعی 48 گونه از سوسماران ایران متعلق به خانواده لاسرتیده در امتداد شیبهای ارتفاعی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. به منظور تعیین الگوی توزیع ارتفاعی اعضای خانواده لاسرتیده مدل رقومی ارتفاع کشور به طبقات ارتفاعی صد متری تقسیم شد و تعداد گونه در هر طبقه ارتفاعی ثبت شد. ارزش عددی متغیرهای شیب، مساحت، ارتفاع، شاخص تشعشع حرارتی، شاخص نرمال شده پوشش گیاهی، بارش سالیانه، بارش در مرطوب ترین ماه سال، بارش در خشک ترین ماه سال، بارش در مرطوب ترین فصل سال، بارش در سردترین فصل سال، بارش در خشک ترین فصل سال و بارش در گرم ترین فصل سال در هر طبقه ارتفاعی از طریق جعبه ابزار Raster استخراج شده و بعد از بررسی میزان همبستگی بین این متغییرها با استفاده از معیار VIF متغیرهای با همبستگی بالا حذف شدند. سپس با اجرای آنالیز رگرسیون چندگانه مهمترین متغییرهای موثر بر توزیع ارتفاعی گونه های خانواده لاسرتیده دو متغییر مساحت و بارش در گرمترین فصل سال شناسایی شد. الگوی کلی توزیع سوسماران خانواده لاسرتیده در امتداد شیب های ارتفاعی به صورت تک اوجی بوده و بیشترین تعداد گونه ها در ارتفاع 1475 تا 1675حضور دارند.
Kamali, K. (2012) -
Kapli, P. & Poulakakis, N. & Lymberakis, P. & Mylonas, M. (2011) -
the Lacertidae is one of the most diverse and widespread lizard families throughout Eurasia and Africa. Several studies so far have attempted to unravel the phylogeny of Lacertidae using morphological and mole- cular data. However, the intra-family relationships remain unclear. in an effort to explore the phylogenetic relationships within the family Lacertidae, a concatenated dataset of 5727 bp from six genes (two nuclear and four mitochondrial) and 40 genera was assembled based on GenBank database. Phylogenetic inference analy- ses were conducted using Maximum Parsimony (MP), Bayesian inference (Bi) and Maximum Likelihood (ML), revealing that even a combined dataset of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes is not able to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of the Lacertidae family under the tribe level.
Karmishev, Y. & Yarigin, O. (2013) -
This work presents data on reproductive features of Ukrainian fauna Lacertidae lizards in laboratory conditions and comparative data on lizards clutches in wild nature. Terms of egg incubation of these lizards in the laboratory in a stable, relatively low temperatures can significantly exceed those in nature, which allows to obtain embryonic material with a smooth, long process of development. The most prolific representatives of different major types - green lizard (Lacerta viridis) and nimble (Lacerta agilis). Females sand lizard can be aggressive towards other females clutches, which is manifested in the destruction of nests.
Kashchenko, N.T. (1909) -
Kaska, Y. & Kumlutaş, Y. & Kaya, U. & Avci, A. & Üzüm, N. & Yeniyurt, C. & Akarsu, F. (2009) -
Kessler, K. (1878) -
Kessler, K.F. (1878) -
Khan, M.A. & Jablonski, D. & Nadeem, M.S. & Masroor, R. & Kehlmaier, C. & Spitzweg, C. & Fritz, U. (2020) -
Eremias Fitzinger, 1834 is a speciose Eurasian genus of true lizards with approximately 40 species. Eremias species occurring in Pakistan have never been examined before using molecular genetics. In the present study, six out of seven morphologically defined taxa distributed in Pakistan (E. acutirostris, E. aporosceles, E. cholistanica, E. kakari, E. persica, and E. scripta) were studied using mitochondrial (16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, cytochrome b) and nuclear (Rag1) genes. Data of 29 individuals were included in phylogenies using ENA/GenBank sequences. With a maximum of 20 species per analyzed data set, this study represents the most complete phylogeny of the genus to date. Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses were run for concatenated (3,528 bp) and single-locus data sets and supported by uncorrected p distance calculations to evaluate the phylogenetic placement and divergence of Pakistani taxa. Among the Pakistani taxa, we detected six mostly well-supported and deeply divergent clades (A-F) differing by uncorrected p distances of up to 23.8% for mtDNA (cytb) and 3.3% for the nuclear Rag1 locus. Despite morphological differences between E. aporosceles and E. acutirostris (both clade A), no unambiguous genetic support was found for these two taxa. Therefore, we regard E. aporosceles as a synonym of E. acutirostris. On the other hand, E. persica was found to represent a species complex with deeply diverged clades (E and F) in Pakistan. Eremias cholistanica (clade D) and E. kakari (clade B), two morphologically defined endemic taxa of Pakistan, were revealed as phylogenetically clearly distinct. Eremias scripta (clade C) from Pakistan was found to be genetically deeply divergent compared to sequences of this taxon from Afghanistan and Uzbekistan. Our study provides evidence that the current taxonomy of Eremias does neither reflect the genetic diversity nor the evolutionary history of the genus, necessitating a comprehensive integrative taxonomic revision of the whole genus.
Khan, M.S. (1999) -
Khan, M.S. (2002) -
During recent years several lizard taxa were added to the faunal list of Pakistan. Descriptions and new
records are scattered in different publications in the herpetological literature. The present paper puts the information
together, and provides a comprehensive list of recent publications on the lizards of Pakistan.
Khan, M.S. (2004) -
Khan, M.S. (2016) -
Khosravani, A. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Oraie, H. (2011) -
Khromov, V.A. (2021) -
Хромов В.А. (2021) -
Kidov, A.A. (2019) -
Materials and methods. Observations of Amphibians and Reptiles were carried out during two tourist trips in March 2016 and in May 2018 in the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardebil.
Results. New data on the distribution of 6 species of Amphibians (Bufo eichwaldi, Bufotes variabilis, Hyla orientalis, H. savignyi, Pelophylax ridibundus, Rana pseudodalmatina) and 21 species of Reptiles (Emys orbicularis, Paralaudakia caucasia, Trapelus ruderatus, Darevskia chlorogaster, D. defilippii, D. raddei, Eremias strauchi, Iranolacerta brandtii, Lacerta strigata, Ophisops elegans, Ablepharus bivittatus, Heremites auratus, Pseudopus apodus, Eryx jaculus, Eirenis punctatolineatus, Hemorrhois ravergieri, Platyceps najadum, Telescopus fallax, Xerotyphlops vermicularis, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata) in the study area were obtained. The author compares the obtained data with the results of other Herpetological researches in the region.
Conclusions. In general, the herpetofauna of the Caspian slopes of the Talysh Range in Iran is an inseparable part of mesophilic herpetocomplexes with the prevalence of gyrcan elements common from the north-western foothills of Talysh in Azerbaijan to the Western Kopetdag in Turkmenistan.
Кидов, А.А. (2019) -
Актуальность и цели. Изученность герпетофауны иранской части гор Талыша и Ленкоранской низменности остается низкой. Цель настоящей работы – уточнить распространение земноводных и пресмыкающихся на территории иранского Талыша.
Материалы и методы. Наблюдения за земноводными и пресмыкающимися осуществляли в ходе двух туристических поездок в марте 2016 г. и в мае 2018 г. на территории иранских провинций Гилян и Ардебиль.
Результаты. Были получены новые данные о распространении на изучае- мой территории 6 видов земноводных (Bufo eichwaldi, Bufotes variabilis, Hyla orientalis, H. savignyi, Pelophylax ridibundus, Rana pseudodalmatina) и 21 вида пресмыкающихся (Emys orbicularis, Paralaudakia caucasia, Trapelus ruderatus, Darevskia chlorogaster, D. defilippii, D. raddei, Eremias strauchi, Iranolacerta brandtii, Lacerta strigata, Ophisops elegans, Ablepharus bivittatus, Heremites aura- tus, Pseudopus apodus, Eryx jaculus, Eirenis punctatolineatus, Hemorrhois ravergieri, Platyceps najadum, Telescopus fallax, Xerotyphlops vermicularis, Natrix natrix, N. tessellata). Автор проводит сравнение полученных данных с результатами других герпетологических исследований в регионе.
Выводы. В целом герпетофауна прикаспийских склонов Талышского хребта в Иране является неразрывной частью мезофильных герпетокомплексов с превалированием гирканских элементов, распространенных от северо-западных предгорий Талыша в Азербайджане до Западного Копетдага в Туркменистане.
Kim, B.-N. & Kim, J.-K. & Park, D. (2012) -
Information about the mating behaviors of an endangered species is critical for the understanding of the natural history of the species as well as in situ and ex situ breeding programs designed to rehabilitate field populations. We describe the mating behaviors of the Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus), an endangered species in South Korea. The mating of this species consists of precopulatory, copulatory, and postcopulatory stages and is composed of 12 different mating behaviors. During the postcopulatory stage, other males or females not involved in mating show more interference behaviors than during the precopulatory and copulatory stages. The male E. argus has an extraordinarily long postcopulatory bite, which may function as a type of mate-guarding behavior. This study is the first report on the mating behavior of a South Korean reptile.
Kim, B.N. & Kim, I.H. & Kim, J.K. & Park, D. (2010) -
To understand oviposition and egg hatching of the Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) in the laboratory and field, we allowed 21 female lizards to lay their eggs, collected eggs, measured mass, length, and width of the eggs, incubated the eggs, and measured mass and snout-vent length (SVL) of hatchlings. Females laid about 3 eggs per clutch over two clutches in a breeding season between late May and early July, 2010, and buried the eggs in the sand at approximately 15 – 20 cm depth. Mass, length and width of the eggs from the first and second clutches in the laboratory were not different. The relative clutch mass (total egg mass/gravid female mass) of the first clutch in the laboratory was smaller as 0.26 than 0.39 of the second clutch in the field. The incubation period of eggs in a common used incubator was shorter as 38 days than 50 days of a hand-made incubator although the former showed about 5% hatching failure. Mass and SVL of hatchlings were not different depending on the incubator types, common used and hand-made incubators, and on the first and second clutches in the laboratory.
김빛나, 김일훈, 김자경, 박대식 (2010) -
Kim, I.H. (2012) -
Kim, I.H. & Ra, N.Y. & Park, D. (2012) -
Information on habitat use is critical in sizing protected areas for endangered reptile species.To investigate habitat use,home range,and hibernaculum of the endangered Mongolian Racerunner (Eremias argus),we radio-tracked 40 specimens in a coastal sand dune in South Korea.Of the 163 locations recorded during the breeding season,150 (92.0％) were in grass sand dunes,and the rest (8.0％),all associated with the same lizard,were in shrub sand dunes.All of the 123 locations recorded during the non-breeding season were in grass sand dunes.No lizards were found in the grasslands abutting the dunes.The four lizards with identifiable hibernation sites were found under an average of 17.8 cm of sand and were all located in grass sand dunes.The lizards moved approximately 5 m daily and used 162 m2 of home range (computed by minimum convex polygon,MCP) during the breeding season,and they moved approximately 2 m and used 68 m2 of home range during the non-breeding season.However,the mean daily moved distances and MCP home ranges were not statistically significantly different between the seasons or between males and females.Our results suggest that in coastal sand dunes,E.argus uses grass sand dunes as its main habitat throughout the year.This finding could be used to determine the appropriate habitat size and to designate for the conservation of this endangered species.
Kim, J.-K. & Kim, I.-H. & Kim, B. & Park, D. (2010) -
김자경, 김일훈, 김빛나, 박대식 (2010) -
Kim, J.-K. & Song, J.-Y. & Lee, J.-H. & Park, D. (2010) -
In this study, we have evaluated the physical characteristics of neonate, female, and male Mongolian racerunners (Eremias
argus) and determined the age structure of a population of the species in a field located in Taean-gun, Chungnam,
South Korea. The physical parameters of females and males, including snout-vent length (SVL), head length, head width,
and body mass were found to be significantly interrelated. Male Mongolian racerunners exhibited significantly longer
heads than the females, but other physical parameters, such as SVL, head width, and body mass did not differ between
the female and male specimens. In the study population, the females ranged in age from two to eleven years old and the
males ranged between two to eight years of age. The number of females and males, when separated into different age
classes, did not differ within each age class. Male Mongolian racerunners evidenced greater SVL growth coefficients than
the females, but asymptotic SVL did not differ between the females and males.
Kim, J.K. (2010) -
Kim, J.K. & Kim, I.H. & Kim, B.N. & Ra, N.Y. & Park, D. (2011) -
Understanding habitat characteristics of an endangered species in the field is critical to conserve or recover the endangered species. Mongolian racerunner, Eremias argus, is an endangered species designated by the Ministry of Environment of Korea, and it has found in coastal dunes, riparian areas, and mountain areas. In this study, we determined and compared the characteristics of E. argus habitat in coastal dunes and mountain areas where they are both present and absent. The sand dunes where E. argus are present have higher plant coverage than others. The grain size of the sand soil in the habitat is fine and medium and Elymus molis, Ischaemum anthephoroides, and Carex kobomugi are dominant plants. Various insects from 26 different families were found. The mountain areas where E. argus are present are composed of higher proportion of shrub and bare ground areas, but lower of tree areas than others. The grain size of the sand soil in the habitat is coarse and very coarse and plants from Gramineae and Fagaceae are dominant. Most lizards were observed on the bare ground where shrub is nearby.
김자경, 김일훈, 김빛나, 박대식 (2011) -
Kimovna, P.R. (2018) -
Кимовна, П.Р. (2018) -
Koeppen, F.T. (1883) -
Kolora, S.R. & Faria, R. & Weigert, A. & Schaffer, S. & Grimm, A. & Henle, K. & Sahyoun, A.H. & Stadler, P.F. & Nowick, K. & Bleidorn, C. & Schlegel, M. (2017) -
We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the Western green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) using Illumina technology and additional Sanger sequencing. The assembled 17 086 bp mitogenome had a GC content of 40.32% and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one control region (CR), with a gene order identical to the chordate consensus. In addition, we re-sequenced the mitogenome of the closely related Eastern green lizard L. viridis using the same techniques as for L. bilineata. The mitogenomes of L. bilineata and L. viridis showed a sequence identity of 94.4% and 99.9%, respectively, relative to the previously published L. viridis mitogenome. The phylogenetic reconstruction based on 17 Lacertinae mitogenomes using Anolis carolinensis as the outgroup supported L. bilineata and its sister species L. viridis as distinct lineages.
Konstantin, A. & Rogovin, D. & Semenov, V. & Shenbrot, G.I. (2001) -
Kotenko, K. & Szczerbak, N.N. (1995) -
Kotenko, T. (1986) -
Kotenko, T. & Vekhnik, V. (1993) -
Kotenko, T.I. (1986) -
Kotenko, T.I. (2010) -
This article includes a brief outline of herpetological studies in Crimea over the past 50 years, checklists of taxa of amphibians and reptiles, and a general description of the herpetofauna of Crimea. Some formal issues for the protection of amphibians and reptiles are also considered.
Котенко, Т.И. (2010) -
Два класса холоднокровных позвоночных – земноводные или амфибии1, и пресмыкающиеся или рептилии – по своей морфологии, биологии и образу жизни сильно различаются, однако традиционно рассматриваются вместе и изучаются в рамках специального раздела зоологии – герпетологии. И хотя последнюю часто разделяют на собственно герпетологию или науку о рептилиях, и батрахологию или науку об амфибиях, в этом обзоре мы будем придерживаться широкой трактовки термина «герпетология». Предлагаемая статья включает краткий очерк герпетологических исследований в Крыму за последние 50 лет, контрольные списки таксонов амфибий и рептилий, общую характеристику герпетофауны Крыма. Рассматриваются также некоторые формальные вопросы охраны амфибий и рептилий.
Kral, B. (1969) -
This paper comprises, the collections made in four northern provinces of Afghanistan (Mazar-i-Sharif, Herat, Malmana, Kataghan) and In the eastern Afghan province of Nangarhar which is separated from the Central Asiatic Subregions by the mountain range of Hindu-Kush. In all, 135 Individuals belonging to 34 species were determined. The herpetofauna of the northern provinces was compared with that of Nangahar. In this province 9 species, [Gmnodactylus sp. (kachhensis ssp. nov.?), Calores versicolor, Uromastyx hardwicki, Varanus bengalensis, Oligodon arnensis, Fowleya piscator, Psammophis leithiand Bungarus coeruleus], typical of the Oriental Region, were fund but the forms typical of the Turanian zone are missing here. This specific structure of the herpetofauna arranges the -Nangahar provinces [the drainage area of the Kabul River in the environs of Jalad-Abad] to the Oriental Region. In the Nangarhar province a new form belonging to Gymnodactylus kachhensis was found. Its taxonomy was not solved.
Kretzschmar, K.G. (1995) -
The dangers of helminth infestations for lizards, particularly infestations with nematodes und cestodes, are reported. Infection routes, diagnoses, und treatments are described.
Kroniger, M. & Zawadzki, M. (2005) -
Kropachev, I.I. & Ananjeva, N.B. (2021) -
И.И. Кропачев & Н.Б. Ананьева. (2021) -
Krymov, N.G. (2017) -
Summer counts of Phrynocephalus helioscopus (Pallas, 1771) and Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773) were conducted in the Altai Region during April – September, 2016. A sharp decline in the activity of lizards in June and July was noted, due to the high temperatures and dry weather. As a result of excavation of some burrows, lizards in a non-active state were found. The possibility of summer hibernation (estivation) of the species is considered.
Крымов Н.Г. (2017) -
Алтайском крае проведены учеты Phrynocephalus helioscopus (Pallas, 1771) и Eremias arguta (Pallas, 1773) в период апрель - сентябрь 2016 г. Отмечен резкий спад активности ящериц в июне - июле в связи с высокими температурами и засушливой погодой. В результате раскопок нор обнаружены ящерицы в неактивном состоянии. Рассматривается вероятность летней спячки (эстивации) у данных видов.
Krymov, N.G. & Doronin, I.V. (2021) -
Kudakina, E.J. (1981) -
Kukushkin, O.V. & Doronin, I.V. & Tuniyev, B.S. & Ananjeva, N.B. & Doronina, M.A. (2017) -
An overview of the cases of introduction (both accidental and intentional) of amphibians and reptiles in
the Caucasus and Crimea is provided. The introduction cases are systemized in accordance with the goals
and ways of introduction and with regards to the expected scale of the impact and its nature. No negative
consequences of the introduction of amphibian and reptile species in the Crimea and Caucasus are currently
observed on any of the known examples. No cases of species naturalization, which the “invasion”
term can be applied to, have been revealed. The importance of allochthonous populations as experimental
sites to study microevolutionary processes and ecological adaptations of the species in new environmental
conditions is discussed.
Кукушкин О.В., Доронин И.В., Туниев Б.С., Ананьева Н.Б., Доронина М.А. (2017) -
Представлен обзор случаев интродукции (как случайной, так и преднамеренной) земноводных и пресмыкаю- щихся на Кавказе и в Крыму. Факты интродукции систематизированы по целям и путям проникновения живот- ных с учетом предполагаемого масштаба воздействия и характера влияния на природные комплексы. Негатив- ные последствия интродукции видов земноводных и пресмыкающихся в Крыму и на Кавказе в настоящее время не прослеживаются ни на одном из известных нам примеров; случаи натурализации видов, к которым обосно- ванно может быть применен термин «инвазия», не выявлены. Рассмотрено значение аллохтонных популяций как экспериментальных полигонов для изучения микроэволюционных процессов и экологических адаптаций видов в новых для них условиях.
Kukushkin, O.V. & Lukonina, S.A. & Simonov, E.P. & Doronin, I.V. & Ermakov, O.A. (2021) -
Kupriyanova, L.A. (1992) -
Kupriyanova, L.A. (1994) -
he chromosomes of eight lacertid species were studied by standard and banding techniques (C- and NOR-banding, telomeric sequences) and chromosomal interlocation during mitosis and meiosis was investigated. The data obtained are discussed in the light of modern ideas of the interrelation between DNA changes, karyotype evolution, and speciation. The assumption is voiced on the optimal number of arms and, consequently, the “optimal” number of functional telomeres in the Lacertidae, which in its turn may be associated with the structure of the nucleus and with canalization of the genome as a whole.
Kupriyanova, L.A. & Arronet, U.N. (1964) -
Kurnaz, M. (2020) -
Turkey is biogeographically diverse and consequently has a rich herpetofauna. As a result of active herpetological research, the number of species has steadily increased in recent years. I present here a new checklist of amphibian and reptile species distributed in Turkey, revising the nomenclature to reflect the latest taxonomic knowledge. In addition, information about the systematics of many species is also given. In total 35 (19.4%) amphibian and 145 (80.6%) reptile species comprise the Turkish herpetofauna. Among amphibians, 16 (45.7%) anurans and 19 urodelans (54.3%) are present. Among reptiles, 11 (7.6%) testudines, 71 (49%) saurians, 3 (2.1%) amphisbaenians and 60 (41.3%) ophidians are considered part of the herpetofauna. The endemism rate in Turkey is considered relatively high with a total of 34 species (12 amphibian species – 34.3% and 22 reptile species – 15.2%) endemic to Turkey, yielding a total herpetofaunal endemism of 18.9%. While 38 species have not been threat-assessed by the IUCN, 92 of the 180 Turkish herpetofaunal species are of Least Concern (LC), 13 are Near Threatened (NT), 10 are Vulnerable (VU), 14 are Endangered (EN), and 7 are Critically Endangered (CR). In addition, 6 species are in the DD (Data Deficient) category.
Kurnaz, M. & Eroglu, A. (2020) -
Species are affected by many biotic and abiotic variables while distributed in the geographical areas on the earth. These factors constitute all the life-related needs of the species in their habitats and constitute the ecological barrier between the species. In this study, E. strauchi was recorded for the first time from Erzurum province and this record constitutes the westernmost locality of the species. Moreover, information on the bioclimatic factors in determining the distribution of the species in Turkey is given. This shows that E. strauchi has adapted to the terrestrial climate and prefers its habitat requirements accordingly.
Lambert, M.R.K. (2002) -
Langerwerf, B. (1980) -
Lantz, L.A. (1918) -
Lantz, L.A. (1928) -
Leviton, A.E. (1959) -
Leviton, A.E. & Anderson, S.C. (1970) -
Leviton, A.E. & Anderson, S.C. (2010) -
Leviton, A.E. & Anderson, S.C. & Adler, K. & Minton, S.A. (1992) -
Li G. (2005) -
In the shrub land habitat,E.argus lives in the shrub community but P.frontalis lives mainly on the field among the shrub land. The overlap of their spatial niche was small ( 0.15) but the overlap of the trophic niche was high( 0.82, Aug.).The potential competitive ability between the two species was measured by Nelson similarity coefficient.The competitive ability of P.frontalis for space was stronger than that of E.argus,but for trophic E.argus was stronger than that of P.frontalis.Measured by several factors,the Adaptability of E.argus was superior to that of P.frontalis in the shrub land.
Li, D. & Liu, J. & Zhou, T. & Guo, X. (2015) -
In this study we observed the embryonic development processes and compared the weight of eggs with neonates to identify the form of nutritional provisioning in Eremias multiocellata. We also used light microscopy to determine the features of chorioallontoic placenta during late stages of gestation. Neonatal dry weight was approximately 10.3% smaller than egg dry weight. Chorioallantoic membrane and uterine epithelium exhibited an indirect apposition without any fusion. No specialized region, placentome, has been found for nutrition transfer between these membranes. The chorioallontoic placenta of E. multiocellata is consistent with the simplest and most common type, Weekes type I. We infer that E. multiocellata is predominately lecithotrophic, meaning that nourishment for embryonic development is primarily supplied by the yolk. This kind of embryonic nutrition confirms the pattern found in most squamates with a simple placenta. This simple placenta adds anatomical evidence to understand the weak immune interaction between matrix and fetus in E. multiocellata. Finally, we discussed the implications for interpreting the evolution of viviparity and placentation.
Li, H. & Ji, X. & Qu Y.-F. & Gao J.-F. & Zhang, L. (2006) -
Reproductive success and morphological traits are intimately linked in lizards. We collected adult multi-ocellated racerunners Eremias multiocellata from a population in Inner Mongolia (northern China) to quantify sexual dimorphism and female reproductive characteristics of this poorly studied viviparous, lacertid lizard, testing for the prediction that the evolution of sexual dimorphism is promoted by between-sex differences in reproductive success relating to adult morphological traits. Adults are sexually dimorphic in head size but not in body size, with males having longer and wider heads than do females of the same body length. Females ovulate from May to June and, under laboratory conditions, they give birth to young from late June to late July. Litter size ranges from two to four young. Litter mass is positively correlated with female SVL, but female SVL only explains a small portion (approximately 19%) of variation in litter mass. Both litter size and neonate mass are not correlated with female SVL. Neonate mass is negatively correlated with relative fecundity (litter size relative to female SVL), suggesting a trade-off between size and number of offspring in E. multiocellata. Overall, selective pressures towards large male and large females are both relatively weak in E. multiocellata, and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in head size results mainly from between-sex differences in reproductive success relating to adult head size
Li, H. & Qu, Y.-F. & Ding, G.-H. & Ji, X. (2011) -
We compared adult size, female reproductive traits, and offspring phenotypes between multiocellated racerunners (Eremias multiocellata) from two thermally different sites (populations) in Inner Mongolia (North China): the colder one in Wulatehouqi (WQ) and the warmer one in Dalateqi (DQ). Both adults and neonates were smaller in the colder site. Females from the two sites both produced a single litter of 2–5 young per season, and did not differ in allocation of energy to reproduction after accounting for differences in body size. Female neonates had more ventral scales than did males, and the WQ neonates had fewer ventral scales than did the DQ neonates. The WQ neonates were slower than the DQ neonates. When body length was normalized across populations, we found that (1) hindlimb length correlated positively with sprint speed in both WQ and DQ neonates, (2) forelimb length correlated positively with sprint speed only in the DQ neonates, and (3) tail length correlated positively with sprint speed only in the WQ neonates. Hindlimb length played a more important role in locomotion than did tail length or forelimb length. Though differing in size and morphology, neonates from the two sites did not differ in early growth and survival under identical laboratory conditions. Our data are consistent with many studies that have shown countergradient variation in physiological traits (growth rate and reproductive output) and cogradient variation in morphological traits.
Li, H. & Qu, Y.-F. & Hu, R.-B. & Ji, X. (2009) -
We used a cold-climate viviparous lacertid lizard (Eremias prezwalskii) as a model system to test the maternal manipulation hypothesis. Twenty-four gravid females collected from a population in Inner Mongolia (northern China) were maintained in the laboratory for the whole gestation length, with 12 allowed to bask for 14-h daily and the other 12 for 10-h daily. Females selected lower body temperatures but did not thermoregulate more precisely when gravid. The mean gestation length was shorter in females provided with longer basking opportunity. Neonates in the two treatments differed in tail length and the number of ventral scales but not in other examined morphological traits, with offspring born in the 14-h treatment having longer tails but fewer ventral scales. Offspring were sexually dimorphic at birth, with females being smaller in tail length, head length and fore-limb length but having more ventral scales than males of the same size. Offspring born in the 14-h treatment were not only faster runners but also grew faster than did offspring born in the 10-h treatment. Our data validate the main predictions of the maternal manipulation hypothesis that females should shift selected body temperatures during gestation to provide optimal thermal conditions for developing embryos and that phenotypic traits determined by maternal thermoregulation should enhance offspring fitness. Our study is the first to demonstrate that the maternal manipulation hypothesis applies to cold-climate viviparous reptiles.
Li, H. & Wang, Z. & Mei, W.-B. & Ji, X. (2009) -
We acclimated adult males of three Eremias lizards from different latitudes to 28 °C, 33 °C or 38 °C to examine whether temperature acclimation affects their thermal preference and tolerance and whether thermal preference and tolerance of these lizards correspond with their latitudinal distributions. Overall, selected body temperature (Tsel) and viable temperature range (VTR) were both highest in E. brenchleyi and lowest in E. multiocellata, with E. argus in between; critical thermal minimum (CTMin) was highest in E. multiocellata and lowest in E. brenchleyi, with E. argus in between; critical thermal maximum (CTMax) was lower in E. multiocellata than in other two species. Lizards acclimated to 28 °C and 38 °C overall selected lower body temperatures than those acclimated to 33 °C; lizards acclimated to high temperatures were less tolerant of low temperatures, and vice versa; lizards acclimated to 28 °C were less tolerant of high temperatures but had a wider VTR range than those acclimated to 33 °C and 38 °C. Lizards of three species acclimated to the three temperatures always differed from each other in CTMin, but not in Tsel, CTMax and VTR. Our results show that: temperature acclimation plays an important role in influencing thermal preference and tolerance in the three Eremias lizards, although the degrees to which acclimation temperature affects thermal preference and tolerance differ among species; thermal preference rather than tolerance of the three Eremias lizards corresponds with their latitudinal distributions
Li, H. & Zhou, Z.-S. & Lin, L.H. (2012) -
We isolated and characterizated 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci in the rapid racerunner Eremias velox (Squamata: Lacertidae). The loci were screened in 37 E. velox individuals. The number of alleles ranged from 6 to 16. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.432 to 0.919, and the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.685 to 0.902. These microsatellite markers should prove useful for population genetic studies of E. velox and other Eremias species.
Li, J. & Chang, J. & Li, W. & Guo, B. & Li, J. & Wang, H. (2017) -
Triadimefon (TF) is a widely used chiral fungicide with one chiral centre and two enantiomers (TF1 and TF2). However, little is reported about the ecological toxicity of reptiles on an enantioselective level. TF is a potential endocrine disruptor that may interfere with sex steroid hormones, such as testosterone (T) and 17beta-estradiol (E2). In our study, the lizards Mongolia Racerunner (Eremias argus) were orally exposed to TF and its enantiomers for 21 days. Plasma sex steroid hormones and steroidogenic-related genes, including 17-beta-hydroxysteroid (hsd17β), cytochrome P450 enzymes (cyp19 and cyp17), and steroid hormone receptors (erα and Ar) were evaluated. After exposure, the plasma testosterone level in the 100 mg/kgbw group was elevated, while the oestradiol level was reduced. This phenomenon may be caused by the transformation of cyp19, which may inhibit the conversion of testosterone to oestradiol and affect sexual behaviour. In addition, the two enantiomers have different effects on hormone levels, which testified to the previously reported biotoxic dissimilarity between TF1 and TF2 in organisms. Furthermore, the cyp19 mRNA level in liver and gonad of the TF2 and TF group (100 mg/kgbw) were significantly down-regulated, while the cyp17 and hsd17β mRNA levels were up-regulated. The expression of erα and Ar mRNA levels were up-regulated in males but not in females, which may indicate that TF has sex differences on these two genes. As seen from the above results, TF and its enantiomers may have endocrine-disrupting effects on lizards (E. argus) by acting sensitively on sex steroid hormones and steroidogenic-related genes.
Li, J. & Nie, L. & Zheng, P. & Song, J. & Rui, J. (2006) -
The Sox family of genes shares a high sequence similarity with the HMG box region of the human Y chromosomal gene, SRY. We used highly degenerate primers to clone and sequence seven Eremias breuchleyi Sox genes (EbSox2, EbSox3, EbSox4, EbSox11, EbSox12, EbSox14 and EbSox21). A database search for the cloned sequences revealed the following percentage identity with the homologous human SOX genes: EbSox2 = 96%, EbSox3 = 88%, EbSox4 = 94%, EbSox11 = 99%, EbSox12 = 96%, EbSox14 = 98%, EbSox21 = 97%. Cluster analysis indicates that they seem to belong to group B and group C of Sox gene family, respectively.
Li, J. & Zheng, P.-P. & Song, J.-L. & Rui, J.-L. & Nie, L.-W. (2006) -
The Sox family of genes shares a high sequence similarity with the HMG box region of the human Y chromosomal gene, SRY. We used highly degenerate primers to clone and sequence seven Eremias breuchleyi Sox genes (EbSox2, EbSox3, EbSox4, EbSox11, EbSox12, EbSox14 and EbSox21). A database search for the cloned sequences revealed the following percentage identity with the homologous human SOX genes: EbSox2 = 96%, EbSox3 = 88%, EbSox4 = 94%, EbSox11 = 99%, EbSox12 = 96%, EbSox14 = 98%, EbSox21 = 97%. Cluster analysis indicates that they seem to belong to group B and group C of Sox gene family, respectively.
Li, Q. & Zou, T. & Tang, W. & Wang, Y. & Du, W. & Wang, X. (2022) -
Sex-determining systems show a striking diversity not only among species, but also among populations. In reptiles, sex-determination is a continuum, from temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) to genetic sex determination (GSD). The multi-ocellated racerunner (Eremias multiocellata) is reported to be a cryptic ZZ/ZW chromosomal TSD species, with male-biased sex ratios at high temperatures in two Gansu populations. However, the generality of the sex-determining pattern in different populations of this species remains unclear. To investigate the mode of sex determination in a population of E. multiocellata from the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, we first identified sex chromosomes via comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). We then conducted a thermal manipulation experiment to determine the effect of gestation temperature on offspring sex ratios. From the CGH studies we found that lizards from the Inner Mongolia population possessed ZZ/ZW sex chromosomes. However, our thermal manipulation experiment showed that gestation temperature did not affect the sex ratio of neonates in this population. In combination, these results rule out TSD in the Inner Mongolia population of E. multiocellata, and suggest that there is widespread geographic variation in the sexdetermining system of this species.
Li, R.-D. & Chen, Q. & Liu, N-.F. (1998) -
Electrocardiograms (ECG) of Eremias multiocellata were studied at 5-35 ℃ in body temperature.Electrocardiogram wave intervals (R-R,P-R,QRS,T-P,and R-T) shortened while heart rate increased with the increasing of body temperature.The average heart rate was 14.6/min at 5 ℃,whereas it was 201/min at 35 ℃.The duration of wave intervals of ECG and the heart rate were related significantly to the body temperature (P<0.001).Among the components of a cardiac cycle the cardiac rest period (TP intervals) and the atria-ventricular conduction time (PR interval) were affected mostly by body temperature.In the other hand the ventricular depolarization and repolarization (QRS and R-T intervals) were relatively less affected by the body temperature.The increasing of heart rate with body temperature was mainly caused by the shortening of ECG wave intervals,and the T-P interval (the cardiac rest period) was shortened more noticeably than other intervals.
李仁德 陈强 刘nai发 (1998) -
采用甘肃省民勤县荒漠半荒漠环境中的卵胎生蜥蜴密点麻蜥(Eremias mutiocellata)为材料，研究其心电活动随体温变化的规律以及对环境温度的适应特点。共记录密点麻蜥125只，每只蜥蜴记录5、10、15、20、25、30、35 ℃7个温度等级，每个等级15-20只；少数蜥蜴记录的温度范围扩展到40、42、44、45和46℃。环境温度采用由电接点温度计和继电器控制的电冰箱和恒温箱来控制。体温测量采用SY-2型数字式温度计，测定时插入泄殖腔2 cm。心电描记采用LMS2B型二道生理记录仪。电极为不锈钢针形电极。实验前将蜥蜴放入待测温度环境中适应2 h。被测蜥蜴背位固定于木板上，不麻醉，将记录电极的正极插入左前肢皮下，负极插入右前肢皮下，地线插入后肢皮下，插入深度均为5 mm。电极固定后待蜥蜴的体温达到预定崐温度5 min后再开始心电记录。在实验记录纸上测量各波的电压值及各间期的时间，其中R-T间期即S-T段，表示从QRS波结束到T波结束的时间，T-P间期表示从T波结束到P波开始时的时间，P-R间期表示从P波开始到QRS波开始的时间，以t测验检验相关系数的显著性。体温为5-35 ℃时的心电图中P波和T波是正向的，且幅度很低，R波幅度高于P波和T波。P波电压值为0.027-0.0525 mV，多在5-25 ℃时出现，高体温(25 ℃以上)时大多数蜥蜴心电图上P波和T波重叠，不易分辨。Q波很小，大多不易辨认，S波在15 ℃以上时均可出现，且为负向波。体温由5 ℃上升至35 ℃时，心率由14.6次/min增加为201次/min。P-R、R-T和T-P间期的值都随之缩短。各间期值在各温度等级之间的差异都极显著(P<0.001)。在相同体温条件下，密点麻蜥的心率范围较一些作者报道的其他蜥蜴的心率都快，且差别很大。心率和体重之间有R＝153 Wt[0.207]的关系(Licht，1965)，密点麻蜥的体重小则心率快，但是密点麻蜥(E.Multiocellata)和荒漠沙蜥(Phrynocephalus przewalskii)的体重相似，心率却有差异，除种属差异外，也与生态环境的差异有关。 QRS/RR和RT/RR的值与体温呈正相关，而TP/RR和PR/RR的值与体温呈负相关。说明在体温升高时心动周期中各间期缩短的程度不同，即心脏的静息期(TP)和房室传导时间(PR)相对缩短，而心室开始去极化至复极化结束的时间(QRS和RT)相对延长。这一特征说明了密点麻蜥的心率随体温升高而加快的原因是静息期缩短和房室传导速度加快，而静息期缩短是最重要的因素。
Li, R.D. & Liu, N.F. (1992) -
The paper deals with the relationship between the body temperatures of Phrynocephalus przewalskii (Sthauch) and Eremias multiocellata (Guenther) and the environmental temperatures,their selections of environmental temperatures and their resistance against low and high temperatures.The body temperatures of przewalskii and Multiocellata were negatively interrelated to environmental temperatures (P<0.001).Under the same temperatures.The body temperatures of przewalskii were 3 ℃ higher than that of multiocellata.The environmental temperatures selected by the former were 38-40 ℃,whereas the latter required only 35-37 ℃.The hot and dead temperatures of przewalskii were higher than those of multiocellata.The threshhold of the hot and dead temperatures in przewalskii varied from 44 ℃ to 48 ℃ and its highest dead temperature (TL) was up to 48℃,and that in multiocellata was 42-46 ℃ and its highest hot temperature (TL) was 46 ℃.The ability that two species can resist against low temperatures was equal.The cold and dead temperatures varied from 0 ℃ to -3 ℃.The cold and dead temperatures (TL) of przewalskii were -2.3 ℃,but those of multiocellata were -2.5 ℃.These significant differences between the two species are concerned with the characteristics of each,habitats and sizes of the bodies.
李仁德,刘nai发 (1992) -
摘要 荒漠沙蜥和密点麻蜥的体温都随环境温度的变化而变化，相关非常显著（P<0.001）。在相同环境温度条件下，荒漠沙蜥的体温约高于密点麻蜥3 ℃。荒漠沙蜥集中选择38-40 ℃的环境，密点麻蜥选择35-37 ℃的环境。荒漠沙蜥的热僵死阈值为44-48 ℃，致死温度（TL）为48 ℃，密点麻蜥的热僵死阈值为42-46 ℃，致死温度（TL）为46 ℃。两种蜥蜴对低温的耐受性基本相似，冷僵温度为0- -3 ℃，致死低温（TL）：荒漠沙蜥为-2.3 ℃，密点麻蜥为-2.5 ℃。两种蜥蜴的这些差异与种的特征、栖息环境及体形的大小有关。
Li, S.-L. & Gao, X. & Wang, M. & Zhao, W.-G. & Chen, H. (2008) -
Li, S.-R. & Wang, Y. & Ma, L. & Zeng, Z.-G. & Bi, J.-H. & Du, W.-G. (2017) -
How ectotherms exploit thermal resources has important implications for their habitat utilization and thermal vulnerability to climate warming. To address this issue, we investigated thermal relations of three sympatric lizard species (Eremias argus, Eremias multiocellata, and Phrynocephalus przewalskii) in the desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. We determined the thermoregulatory behavior, body temperature (Tb), operative temperature (Te), selected body temperature (Tsel), and critical thermal maximum (CTmax) of adult lizards. Based on these physiological parameters, we quantified the accuracy and effectiveness of thermoregulation as well as thermal-safety margin for these species. The three species were accurate and effective thermoregulators. The P. przewalskii preferred open habitats, and had a higher Tb than the two Eremias lizards, which preferred shade habitats and shuttled more frequently between the shade and sun. This indicated that the three sympatric lizards have different thermoregulatory behavior and thermal physiology, which might facilitate their coexistence in the desert steppe ecosystem. In addition, the P. przewalskii had higher Tsel and CTmax, and a wider thermal-safety margin than the two Eremias lizards, suggesting that the two Eremias lizards would be more vulnerable to climate warming than P. przewalskii.
Li, X. & Wang, C. & Tang, G. & Li, S.-R. & Ma, L. & Sun, B. & Zhang, Y.-P. (2019) -
Light is essential for embryonic development in many oviparous animals including fish, amphibians, and birds. However, light may be harmful for reptile embryos developing underground where they are in complete darkness and beneath thin eggshells. Nonetheless, how embryonic light conditions affect reptile development and offspring remains largely unknown. Here we incubated eggs in dark and light conditions to determine the effects of light exposure on embryonic development and offspring visual ability, spatial cognitive ability and growth in a lacertid lizard, Eremias argus. Our experiments demonstrated that light stimulation shortened incubation duration of eggs, but did not affect hatching success, offspring size, visual ability or survival. More interestingly, light exposure during incubation decreased spatial cognitive ability and post-hatching growth of offspring. On the basis of negative effects on offspring growth rates, our study indicates that in squamate reptiles with thin eggshells, light exposure in early development has negative effects on offspring cognitive ability.
Li, X. & Wu, P. & Ma, L. & Huebner, C. & Sun, B. & Li, S. (2020) -
Low‐elevation species can migrate toward higher elevations to survive in a warming world. However, animals’ responses to hypoxia when migrating to high elevations have rarely been addressed. To identify the response of low‐elevation lizards to high‐elevation hypoxia, we collected field body temperatures (Tfb) and operative temperatures (Te) of lizards (Eremias argus) from a low‐elevation population (1036 m) and a high‐elevation population (2036 m), and then determined adult thermal physiology, embryonic development, and hatchling phenotypes after acclimating low‐elevation lizards and incubating their eggs in conditions mimicking the low‐elevation oxygen condition (18.5% O2) and high‐elevation oxygen (hypoxic) condition (16.5% O2). Our study revealed that Tfb and Te were higher for the low‐elevation population compared to the high‐elevation population. We also found adults from low elevation acclimated to hypoxia preferred lower body temperatures, but did not show changes in locomotor performance or growth. In addition, hypoxia did not affect embryonic development (hatching time and success) or hatchling phenotypes (body size and locomotor performance). These results suggest that adult lizards from low elevations can respond to hypoxia‐induced stress when migrating to high elevations by behaviorally thermoregulating to lower body temperatures in order to sustain normal functions. Similarly, low‐elevation embryos can develop normally (with unchanged hatching success and offspring phenotypes) under the high‐elevation hypoxic condition. This study highlights that low‐elevation populations of a species that inhabits a range of elevations can buffer the impact of high‐elevation hypoxic conditions to some degree and thus attain similar fitness to the source population.
Lichtenstein, H. (1823) -
Lichtenstein, H. & Martens, E. von (1856) -
Liesack, H. (1984) -
Lin, Z. & Yu, K. & Shen, L. & Zhang, Y. & Liu, Y. & Hou, M. & Peng, Z. & Tang, X. & Vhen, Q. (2021) -
As the only viviparous reptile in China that has both temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD) and genetic-dependent sex determination (GSD) mechanisms, Eremias multiocellata is considered as an ideal species for studying sex determination mechanism in viviparous lizards. However, studies on embryonic stage of viviparous lizards and morphological characteristics of each stage were limited. In the present study, the embryonic development process of E. multiocellata is divided into 15 stages (Stage 28-42) according to the morphology of embryos. Embryo`s sizes are measured and continuous dynamic variation of some key features, including limbs, genitals, eyes, pigments, and brain scales are color imaged by a stereoscopic microscope. Furthermore, based on these morphological characteristics, we compare the similarities and differences in the embryonic development of E. multiocellata with other squamates species. Our results not only identified the staging table of E. multiocellata with continuous changes of external morphological characteristics but also developed a staging scheme for an important model species that provide a necessary foundation for study of sex determination in viviparous lizard.
Lisachov, A. & Andreyushkova, D. & Davletshina, G. & Prokopov, D. & Romanenko, S. & Galkina, S, & Saifitdinova, A. & Simonov, E. & Borodin, P. & Trifonov, V. (2021) -
HeteromorphicW and Y sex chromosomes often experience gene loss and heterochromatinization, which is frequently viewed as their “degeneration”. However, the evolutionary trajectories of the heterochromosomes are in fact more complex since they may not only lose but also acquire new sequences. Previously, we found that the heterochromatic W chromosome of a lizard Eremias velox (Lacertidae) is decondensed and thus transcriptionally active during the lampbrush stage. To determine possible sources of this transcription, we sequenced DNA from a microdissected W chromosome sample and a total female DNA sample and analyzed the results of reference-based and de novo assembly. We found a new repetitive sequence, consisting of fragments of an autosomal protein-coding gene ATF7IP2, several SINE elements, and sequences of unknown origin. This repetitive element is distributed across the whole length of the W chromosome, except the centromeric region. Since it retained only 3 out of 10 original ATF7IP2 exons, it remains unclear whether it is able to produce a protein product. Subsequent studies are required to test the presence of this element in other species of Lacertidae and possible functionality. Our results provide further evidence for the view of W and Y chromosomes as not just “degraded” copies of Z and X chromosomes but independent genomic segments in which novel genetic elements may arise.
Lisachov, A.P. & Galkina, S.A. & Saifitdinova, A.F. & Romanenko, S.A. & Andreyuhkova, D.A. & Trifonov, V.A. & Borodin, P.M. (2019) -
Reptiles are good objects for studying the evolution of sex determination, since they have different sex determination systems in different lineages. Lacertid lizards have been long-known for possessing ZZ/ ZW type sex chromosomes. However, due to morphological uniformity of lacertid chromosomes, the Z chromosome has been only putatively cytologically identified. We used lampbrush chromosome (LBC) analysis and FISH with a W-specific probe in Eremias velox (Pallas, 1771) to unequivocally identify the ZW bivalent and investigate its meiotic behavior. The heterochromatic W chromosome is decondensed at the lampbrush stage, indicating active transcription, contrast with the highly condensed condition of the lampbrush W chromosomes in birds. We identified the Z chromosome by its chiasmatic association with the W chromosome as chromosome XIII of the 19 chromosomes in the LBC karyotype. Our findings agree with previous genetic and genomic studies, which suggested that the lacertid Z chromosome should be one of the smaller macrochromosomes.
Litvinov, N. & Ganshchuk, S. (2005) -
Liu, J. & Ananjeva, N.A. & Chirikova, M.A. & Milto, K.D. & Guo, X. (2014) -
The rapid racerunner, Eremias velox, is a widely distributed lizard from the northern Caucasus across entire Central Asia eastward to China. It is increasingly common to accept E. velox as a species complex in its entire range. To date, published morphological and molecular systematic hypotheses of this complex are only partially congruent, and its taxonomic status and evolutionary history are still far from clear. The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and 12S rRNA sequences were used to evaluate the taxonomy of this complex, with particular attention to the phylogenetic placement of populations in northwestern China. Examination of the phylogenetic analyses recovers seven distinct, biogeographically discrete, and well-supported clades, revealing genetically identifiable populations corresponding to some previously morphology-defined subspecies. Chinese E. v. roborowskii appears to have split from other Central Asian rapid racerunner lizards well before differentiation occurred among the latter taxa. Specifically, we corroborate that there are two subspecies occurring in China, i.e., E. v. velox and £. v. roborowskii. We recommend a novel subspecific status for the phenotypically and genetically distinct populations in southern Aral Sea region of Uzbekistan previously assigned to E. v. velox. Finally, each of the three independently evolving lineages from Iranian Plateau should be recognized as three species new to science under the general lineage concept.
Liu, J. & Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Chirikova, M.A. & Song, Q. & Gong, X. & Guo, X. (2021) -
The status of Eremias stummeri in China has been a matter of controversy for over two decades, although it is well acknowledged that this species occurs in Northeast Kyrgyzstan and Southeast Kazakhstan. To date, whether its occurrence extends to the adjacent Chinese region (possibly in the Ily River Valley) has not been confirmed yet. To overcome constraints on field surveys imposed by the region’s remoteness and rugged terrain, we targeted areas of further field inventories by estimating the potential distribution of the species. Ecological niche modeling (ENM) enabled us to predict a continuous distribution area from Kazakhstan to the Chinese part of the Ily River Valley in Zhaosu county for the species’ occurrence. We conducted extensive field surveys in the predicted area. In 2017, for the first time, the occurrence of E. stummeri in China was confirmed with a single find in Zhaosu county. Further morphological and multilocus phylogenetic analyses congruently supported the taxonomic status of the recently discovered population as E. stummeri. In contrast to its distribution continuity between Kazakhstan and China, the ENM indicates distribution discontinuity between Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. This geographic distribution pattern of E. stummeri is supported by morphological and molecular evidence, which highlights that individuals from China and Kazakhstan are more closely related to each other than to those from Kyrgyzstan. The mismatch between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogeographic pattern implies that historical mitochondrial introgression occurred from E. stummeri individuals from Kyrgyzstan to those from Kazakhstan.
Liu, J. & Guo, X. & Chen, D. & Li, J., & Yue, B. & Zeng, X. (2018) -
Late Cenozoic stepwise aridification has transformed Central Asia into an arid environment, and the Pleistocene climatic oscillations exerted further ecological impact. Therefore, both aridification and glaciation would have considerably influenced the evolution of many midlatitude species in arid Central Asia (ACA). However, strong biotic evidence supporting this role is still lacking. Here, we test this perspective using a phylogeographic study of Eremias velox, which is an arid-adapted lizard, across ACA using sequences from mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated data, including 595 specimens from 107 localities, revealed ten geographically correlated lineages that diverged by 1.1–15.4% for the cytochrome b gene and 1.0–10.3% for the 12S rRNA gene, which were estimated to have coalesced ∼6.23 million years ago. Ancestral area estimations suggested that E. velox originated from the Iranian Plateau and then dispersed into Central Asia. The intensification of aridification across Central Asia during the Late Pliocene may have facilitated the rapid radiation of this arid-adapted lizard throughout this vast territory. Subsequently, the geological events (e.g., uplift of the Kopet-Dagh, Tianshan and Greater Caucasus Mountains) and glacial oscillations during the Pleistocene triggered the progressive diversification of E. velox. The most recent common ancestor of the Caucasus-Central Asia clade was dated to approximately 2.05 Ma. Specifically, the diversification between the Caucasus clade (VI, VII) and the Central Asia clade (VIII, IX, X), and within the Central Asia clade may have been established and partially maintained by repeated transgressions of the Caspian Sea during the Pleistocene and Holocene. In contrast to demographic and/or range contractions in response to climatic changes during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) of the populations (Clades VI and X) from the Caucasus-Central Asia clade, mitochondrial evidence and ecological niche modeling support the signature of demographic and range expansions during the LGM for the Clade V populations (E. v. roborowskii, being endemic to the Turpan Depression). The effect of Pleistocene climatic changes on the historical demography of this arid-adapted species may be lineagespecific, depending predominantly on animal physiology and geography. Finally, we discuss the taxonomic implications, such as the appearance of the Turkmenistan populations as a distinct species, and E. v. roborowskii deserving a full species status.
Liu, J.-L. & Yuan, X.-Y. & Zhou, T.-H. & Li, D.-J. & Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Gio, X.-G. (2014) -
During the survey on the amphibians and reptiles diversity in Jinhe County, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in June 2013, over twenty specimens of the racerunners were captured at the town of Bujiahu. Among them, four were identified as variegated racerunner, Eremisa vermiculata Blanford, 1875, which is the first record in the north of the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. This discovery enriches our understanding of the distribution data of the variegated racerunner, and will facilitate the investigation of its phylogeographical pattern and testing the barrier effect of the Tianshan Mountains to gene flow.
刘金龙, 原秀云, 周天和, 李大江, Dujsebayeva, T.N. & 郭 宪 光 (2014) -
`#$’ 年 * 月! 在新疆维吾尔族自治区精河县两栖爬行动物多样性调察中! 采集到麻蜥属 `M*%?#+标本 `# 余号! 经鉴定其中 % 号为虫纹麻蜥`MK>%*?#3),+4+#! 为该种在新疆维吾尔自治区天 山以北地区的首次发现! 增加了其在国内的分布点& 此发现能为研究虫纹麻蜥的地理分布和生物地理 格局提供基础资料&
Liu, J.L. & Dujsebayeva, T.N. & Chirikova, M.A. & Gong, M.A. & Li, D.J. & Guo, X.G. (2021) -
The Eremias multiocellata-przewalskii species complex is a viviparous group in the genus Eremias, and a well-known representative of taxonomically complicated taxa. Within this complex, a new species - E. dzungarica (Orlova et al., 2017) - has been described recently from western Mongolia and eastern Kazakhstan, with an apparent distribution gap in northwestern China. In this study, we used an integrative taxonomic framework to address whether E. dzungarica indeed occurs in China. Thirty specimens previously classified as E. multiocellata were collected in eastern Kazakhstan and the adjacent Altay region in China. The cytochrome c oxidase I ( COI) barcodes were sequenced and compiled with those from Orlova et al. (2017) and analyzed with the standard and diverse barcoding techniques. We detected an absence of a barcoding gap in this complex, which indicates potential cryptic species in Eremias sp. 3 with high intraspecific diversity and multiple recently evolved species in Clade A. Both BIN and GMYC suggested an unrealistically large number of species (23 and 26, respectively), while ABGD, mPTP and BPP indicated a more conservative number of species (10, 12, and 15, respectively), largely concordant with the previously defined species-level lineages according to phylogenetic trees. Based on molecular phylogeny and morphological examination, all 30 individuals collected in this study were reliably identified as E. dzungarica - a distinct species - confirming the occurrence of this species in the Altay region, Xinjiang, China. Potentially owing to the larger sample size in this study, our morphological analyses revealed many inconsistencies with the original descriptions of E. dzungarica, which were primarily associated with sexual dimorphism and a broader range of values for various traits.
Liu, N.F. & Geng, Z.R. (1995) -
Food composition in stomaches of 209 adults and 43 juveniles of Eremiqs multiocellata in Minqin area of Gansu Province is analyzed. The results show that Eremias multiocellata is a kind of omnivorous animal which mainly feeds on beetles and Nitraria fruits. After its dormancy, this animal begins to strongly ingest, its ingesting rate being more than 83%.It has an obvious seasonal variation of feeding habit, i.e. only animals are ingested inspring, half of animal and plant in summer, and third of plant in autumn. The diversityof food and the breadth of trophic niche are increased with its increasing size growth.
Long-Ying W. (2007) -
In order to get the information about the population structure of lizards,107 lizards are trapped from the outskirts of Lanzhou in Gansu province.There are 52 E.argus and 55 P.frontalis respectively.The population density of E.argus is 129/hm2 and P.frontalis is 100/hm2.Every population is divided into two classes(the submature class and the mature class).For E.argus the average of SVL is 34.2 mm of the submature class and that of the mature class is 54.5 mm.For P.frontalis the average of SVL is 35.4 of the submature class,and that for the mature class is 57.9 mm.The sex ratio(♀:♂) of the population is 1∶1.07 for E.argus and 1∶0.94 for P.frontalis,so they are close to 1∶1.The results show that the two populations can live in one and the same area.Eremias argus wakes earlier than Phrynocephalus frontalis.The body temperature of lizards is influenced by the ambient temperature of the environment and their physiology can be maintained by their behaviors.
Loughland, R.A. & Cunningham, P.L. (2002) -
Luke, C. (1986) -
Lizard toe fringes are composed of laterally projecting elongated scales and have arisen independently at least 26 times in seven families of lizards. Four different fringe types are identified: triangular, projectional, conical and rectangular. To determine if variation in fringe morphology can be attributed to environmental differences, each independent evolution of a fringe type is identified; correlation of substrate types with evolutionarily independent fringe morphologies are thrn studied. Variation in fringe morphology shows a strong association with substrate type: triangular, projectional and conical fringes with windblown sand; and rectangular fringes with watcr. Some aspects of fringe morphology may result from differences in functional requirements, and others may have no adaptive significance. This example of convergent evolution points out difficulties inherent to comparative studies of adaptation and underscores the value of broad comparative surveys which provide an alternative to ad hor adaptive explanations of similarity.
Lukina, G.P. & Kravchenko, T.F. (1982) -
Some data are presented on the ecology of two lizard species: Eremias velox and E. arguta inhabiting the so-called Ciscaucasian area of the USSR. Both species prefer sandy areas, but E. arguata being more eurytopic, is more tolerant to the anthropogenic disturbing effects in the Kalmykian region. Activity diagrams of both species have two maxima during the day. Beetles seem to be the dominant items in the diet of both species.
Luo, L.-G. & Qu, Y.-F. & Ji, X. (2006) -
We collected adult Eremias argus (Lacertidae) from a population in Yangquan (Shanxi, northern China) to study thermal dependence of food assimilation and sprint speed. Selected body temperature (Tsel) measured on a laboratory thermal gradient was 36.0 °C; critical thermal minimum (CTMin) and critical thermal maximum (CTMax) averaged 1.0 °C and 44.9 °C, respectively. Differences in Tsel, CTMin and CTMax were not found between-sex. Within the range of body temperatures considered, food passage time, daily food intake, daily production of feces and urates, apparent digestive coefficient (ADC) and assimilation efficiency (AE) were all affected by body temperature. Food passage time decreased with increase in body temperature within the range from 26 °C to 34 °C, and then increased at higher body temperatures. Lizards at 30, 32, 34 and 36 °C ate more food and produced more feces and urates than did those at 28 °C and 38 °C. Although ADC and AE were both higher at 34 °C and 36 °C than at other lower or higher temperatures, no clear patterns associated with temperature could be discerned for these two variables. Sprint speed increased with increase in body temperature within the range from 18 °C to 36 °C, and then decreased at 38 °C. The body temperatures maximizing sprint speed was around 36 °C, which was much close to the mean value of body temperatures selected by lizards on the thermal gradient. This result adds evidence that the range of optimal body temperatures for sprint speed is tightly coupled with Tsel in lizards [Acta Zoologica Sinica 52(2):256–262, 2006].
Ma, L. & Guo, K. & Su, S. & Lin, L.-H. & Xia, Y. & Ji, X. (2019) -
The reproductive maturation hypothesis, the terminal investment hypothesis, and the senescence hypothesis are the most extensively evaluated hypotheses proposed to explain age‐related patterns of reproduction in iteroparous organisms. Here, we evaluated these hypotheses for the Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus), a short‐lived lacertid lizard, by comparing reproductive traits between females that completed reproductive cycles under the same laboratory conditions in two consecutive years (2008 and 2009). Reproductive females gained linear size (snout‐vent length) not only as they got 1 year older but also during the breeding season. Larger females generally laid eggs earlier and invested more in reproduction than did smaller ones. Females switched from laying smaller eggs in the first clutch to larger eggs in the subsequent clutches but kept clutch size and postpartum body mass constant between successive clutches in a breeding season and between years. Females that laid more clutches or eggs in 2008 did not lay fewer clutches or eggs in 2009. Of the traits examined, only clutch frequency, annual fecundity, and annual reproductive output were susceptible to ageing. Specifically, the clutch frequency was reduced by 1.1 clutches, annual fecundity by 3.1 eggs and annual reproductive output by 1.0 g in 2009 compared with 2008. Our results suggest that the reproductive maturation hypothesis better explains patterns of reproduction in young or prime‐aged females of E. argus, whereas the senescence hypothesis better explains reproductive patterns in old females. The terminal investment hypothesis does not apply to any trait examined because no trait value was maximized in old females.
Ma, L. & Sun, B.-J. & Cao, P. & Li, X.-H. & Du, W.-G. (2018) -
Temperature variability is predicted to increase in the coming century due to climate change. However, the biological impact of increased temperature variability on animals remains largely unexplored. Here, we experimentally exposed gravid viviparous lizards (Eremias multiocellata) to two thermal environments [constant daily maximum (CDM) versus variable daily maximum (VDM) treatment with the same average temperature] to address maternal and offspring responses to increased variability in ambient temperature. Females from the VDM treatment delayed parturition, but produced similar litter sizes and litter masses as did CDM females. Offspring from the VDM treatment selected higher body temperatures, had higher metabolic rates and higher growth rates, and grew to a similar size as those from the CDM treatment despite having a shorter growth period prior to hibernation. Therefore, phenotypic plasticity may be critical for lizards to respond effectively to climate change, and its role in responding to increasingly variable temperatures warrants further attention.
Ma, L. & Sun, B.-J. & Li, S.-R. & Hao, X. & Bi, J.-H. & Du, W.-G. (2018) -
The vulnerability of species to climate warming varies along latitudinal and elevational clines, but how sympatric species vary in vulnerability to climate warming remains largely unknown. We experimentally simulated nest temperatures of two sympatric lizards with divergent microhabitat preferences (Phrynocephalus przewalskii and Eremias argus), under climate warming senarios, to determine the response of embryos to increased mean temperatures and heat waves. Our study demonstrated that simulated climate warming reduced hatching success and hatchling size and growth in E. argus (that prefers closed microhabitats), but had less effect in P. przewalskii (that occupies open microhabitats). The reduced growth rate of E. argus hatchlings was associated with a decrease in metabolic rate, which was more evident in hatchling E. argus than in P. przewalskii. Our results suggest lizards that prefer closed microhabitats may be more vulnerable to climate warming than those that prefer open microhabitats; further studies are needed to test this hypothesis. More generally, the divergent responses of sympatric species to climate warming highlights the importance of distinguishing the thermal sensitivity of behavior and physiology for each species of a community, in order to make predictions about the impacts of climate warming at regional scales.
Macias, D. & Shin, Y. & Borzée, A. (2021) -
The ecology of most squamates from the Republic of Korea is poorly understood: information on tolerances to environmental variables, movement patterns, home range sizes, and other aspects of their natural history and ecological requirements are lacking. In turn, this lack of knowledge presents an obstacle to effective conservation management. Currently and at the national level, two of Korea’s eleven terrestrial snake species are listed as threatened or near threatened: Elaphe schrenckii and Sibynophis chinensis, and one out of the six lizard species (Eremias argus) is listed as threatened. However, various threats including habitat loss, climate change and poaching may have already but unknowingly elevated other Korean reptiles to threatened statuses. To help resource managers in developing conservation programs, we provide a summary of the literature on threats to Korean squamates, a national recommended threat status, and species accounts focused on Korean populations. We recommend listing Hebius vibakari, E. argus, Scincella huanrenensis and Gekko japonicus under a higher threat level than the one provided by either the Korean National Institute of Biological Resources or the IUCN Red List. Our results highlight that conservation plans are urgently needed for Korean squamates, mostly because of habitat destruction, and that additional research has to be conducted on most species as there is a clear need for integrated ecological studies and active monitoring programs.
Martin, T.E. & Guillemin, M. & Nivet-Mazerolles, V. & Landsman, C. & Dubos, J. & Eudeline, R. & Stroud, J.T. (2017) -
The diverse habitats of central Uzbekistan support a rich herpetofaunal community, but distributions and relative abundances of the species comprising this community remain poorly known. Here, we present an annotated species inventory of this under-explored area, with detailed notes on distributions and population statuses. Fieldwork was concentrated in southern Navoi and western Samarkand provinces, although some records were also made in the far north of Navoi province, near the city of Uchkuduk. Data were collected between March and May/June in 2011, 2012, and 2013, with herpetofaunal records being made opportunistically throughout this period. Survey effort was concentrated in semi-desert steppe area located to the south of the city of Navoi and an expanse of unnamed steppe located to the north of Navoi. Further records were made in a range of other habitat types, notably wetlands, sand dune fields, and low rocky mountains. Total fieldwork equated to approximately 8,680 person-hours of opportunistic survey effort. In total, we detected two amphibian and 26 reptile species in our study area, including one species classified as Globally Vulnerable by the IUCN. We present distributional data supporting the first record of regional range extensions of five species from within our study area. Our results represent the most detailed data concerning reptile and amphibian diversity and distributions produced from Uzbekistan in recent years. We conclude by recommending that further, systemized survey work needs to be conducted within the area to supplement our findings with more robust estimates of species abundances supported by more detailed information on specieshabitat relationships.
Maslova, I.V. (2016) -
Data on the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Russian Far East in the reserves and national parks of federal importance are presented, as well as the information on the representation of these groups of animals in regional Red Data Books and the Red Data Book of the Russian Federation is provided.
Masroor, R. & Khisroon, M. & Khan, M.A. & Jablonski, D. (2020) -
A new, morphologically distinctive lacertid lizard of the genus Eremias (Rhabderemias) is described from the arid
mountains of northwestern Balochistan Province in Pakistan. Eremias kakari sp. nov. has an isolated distribution and can
be easily distinguished from all other species of mainly desert subgenus Rhabderemias (E. andersoni, E. cholistanica,
E. fasciata, E. lineolata, E. pleskei, E. scripta, E. vermiculata). Apart from other differences, E. kakari sp. nov. can be distinguished from geographically close members of the subgenus Rhabderemias (E. cholistanica, E. fasciata, and E.
scripta) by having a single row of subdigital lamellae and a complete row of lateral scales and hence three scales around
the penultimate phalanx of 4th toe. The new species is morphologically (dorsal pattern) very similar to E. fasciata but can be distinguished from this species for having 22–26 subdigital lamellae under 4th toe, 48–55 dorsal scales across midbody, ventrals in 11–14 oblique longitudinal series across the belly, 17–21 femoral pores and 17–21 scales in the 9th–10th annulus posterior to the postcloacal granules. The new species is currently known only from the type locality situated in the Toba Kakar Range, near to Tanishpa village. However, we expect that Eremias kakari sp. nov. would have a broader range in northwestern Pakistan and southeastern Afghanistan. An identification key for the Pakistani Eremias, together with other remarks to the new species, is presented.
Mayer, W. (1989) -
Taxonomic changes and new findings concerning the subfamily Eremiainae in
Africa are summarized to update SZCZERBAK`s (1975) catalogue of the African Sand Lizards.
Furthermore, a key to the species and subspecies of the genus Pedioplanis is provided.
Mayer, W. (2013) -
A commented lacertids list for Europe, Africa, the Middle East, including the Arabian Peninsula and Asia is given.
Mayer, W. & Benyr, G. (1994) -
The albumins from 41 species of the family Lacertidae representing a substantial part of genera as well as
infrageneric groups of the collective genus Lacerta s.l. were investigated by means of the MCF technique.
The data allow a chronological estimation of the most important radiation events and their correlation with
paleogeographical facts. Our results are in remarkable contradiction to the phylogeny presented by ARNOLD
(1989a) based mainly on morphological characters. The most important phylogenetic relationships are:
1. The genera Gallona and Psammodromus are already isolated from the other taxa since the Oligocene.
We assess these main branches as subfamilies Gallotiinae and Lacertinae.
2. Lacerta s.str. and Lacerta subgenus Zootoca form the sister group of the remaining Lacertinae.
3. A colonization of Africa in the Lower Miocene has led to a separation in two lines, with mainly Eurasian
and African members respectively.
4. ARNOLD`S (I.e.) `Ethiopian and advanced Saharo-Eurasian clade` proved to be a paraphyletic unit, one
group of genera being more closely related to European taxa.
All techniques applied to the systematics of Lacertidae hitherto are critically discussed. An area-time-
hypothesis concerning the phylogeny of Lacertidae is presented.
Key words: Lacertidae, phylogeny of; Gallotiinae subfam. nov.; Lacertinae subfam. nov.; micro
complement fixation; albumin evolution.
Mayer, W. & Pavlicev, M. (2007) -
The family Lacertidae encompasses more than 250 species distributed in the Palearctis, Ethiopis and Orientalis. Lacertids have been
subjected in the past to several morphological and molecular studies to establish their phylogeny. However, the problems of convergent
adaptation in morphology and of excessively variable molecular markers have hampered the establishment of well supported deeper phylogenetic
relationships. Particularly the adaptations to xeric environments have often been used to establish a scenario for the origin and
radiation of major lineages within lacertids. Here we present a molecular phylogenetic study based on two nuclear marker genes and
representatives of 37 lacertid genera and distinct species groups (as in the case of the collective genus Lacerta). Roughly 1600 bp of
the nuclear rag1 and c-mos genes were sequenced and analyzed. While the results provide good support to the hitherto suggested main
subfamilies of Gallotiinae (Gallotia and Psammodromus), Eremiainae and Lacertinae [Harris, D.J., Arnold, E.N., Thomas, R.H., 1998.
Relationships of lacertid lizards (Reptilia: Lacertidae) estimated from mitochondrial DNA sequences and morphology. Proc. R. Soc.
Lond. B 265, 1939–1948], they also suggest unexpected relationships. In particular, the oriental genus Takydromus, previously considered
the sister-group to the three subfamilies, is nested within Lacertinae. Moreover, the genera within the Eremiainae are further divided into
two groups, roughly corresponding to their respective geographical distributions in the Ethiopian and the Saharo-Eurasian ranges. The
results support an independent origin of adaptations to xeric conditions in different subfamilies. The relationships within the subfamily
Lacertinae could not be resolved with the markers used. The species groups of the collective genus Lacerta show a bush-like topology in
the inferred Bayesian tree, suggesting rapid radiation. The composition of the subfamilies Eremiainae and Lacertinae as well as their
phylogeography are discussed.
Mazanayeva, L.F. & Tuniyev, B.S. (2011) -
The paper describes the history of biogeographic views on the herpetofauna of both Dagestan and the Caucasus as a whole. The species are grouped into eight zoogeographic groups on the basis of our de- tailed chorological analysis. Mesophilous and xerophilous refuges of the Dagestan herpetofauna are de- scribed. Our herpeto-geographical subdivision of the territory is given. The territory of Dagestan is lo- cated in the Palaearctic subkingdom of Holarctic kingdom and divided between two areas, namely, the Turanian and Mediterranean ones. The boundary between the regions is the junction of the northern foot- hills and plains of the Eastern Caucasus. A possible reconstruction of the regional herpetofauna genesis is considered.
Мазанаева Л.Ф. & Туниев Б.С. (2011) -
Рассмотрены история биогеографических взглядов о герпетофауне Дагестана и Кавказа в целом. На базе детального анализа хорологии виды сгруппированы в 8 зоогеографических групп. Описа- ны мезофильные и ксерофильные рефугиумы герпетофауны Дагестана, дано герпетогеографиче- ское районирование его территории. Территория Дагестана расположена в Палеарктическом под- царстве Голарктического царства и подразделяется между двумя областями: Туранской и Среди- земноморской. Граница между областями проходит по стыку северных предгорий и равнин Вос- точного Предкавказья. Рассмотрены возможные пути исторического формирования герпетофауны региона.
Méhely, L. (1901) -
Méhely, L. (1909) -
Meiri, S. (2008) -
Aim Body size is instrumental in influencing animal physiology, morphology, ecology and evolution, as well as extinction risk. I examine several hypotheses regarding the influence of body size on lizard evolution and extinction risk, assessing whether body size influences, or is influenced by, species richness, herbivory, island dwelling and extinction risk.
Methods I used literature data and measurements of museum and live specimens to estimate lizard body size distributions.
Results I obtained body size data for 99% of the world`s lizard species. The body size–frequency distribution is highly modal and right skewed and similar distributions characterize most lizard families and lizard assemblages across biogeographical realms. There is a strong negative correlation between mean body size within families and species richness. Herbivorous lizards are larger than omnivorous and carnivorous ones, and aquatic lizards are larger than non-aquatic species. Diurnal activity is associated with small body size. Insular lizards tend towards both extremes of the size spectrum. Extinction risk increases with body size of species for which risk has been assessed.
Main conclusions Small size seems to promote fast diversification of disparate body plans. The absence of mammalian predators allows insular lizards to attain larger body sizes by means of release from predation and allows them to evolve into the top predator niche. Island living also promotes a high frequency of herbivory, which is also associated with large size. Aquatic and nocturnal lizards probably evolve large size because of thermal constraints. The association between large size and high extinction risk, however, probably reflects a bias in the species in which risk has been studied.
Meiri, S. & Bauer, A.M. & Chirio, L. & Colli, G.R. & Das, I. & Doan, T.M. & Feldman, A. & Herrera, F.-C. & Novosolov, M. & Pafilis, P. Pincheira-Donoso, D. & Powney, G. & Torres-Carvajal, O. & Uetz, P. & Van Damme, R. (2013) -
Aim Temperature influences most components of animal ecology and life history
– but what kind of temperature? Physiologists usually examine the influence of
body temperatures, while biogeographers and macroecologists tend to focus on
environmental temperatures. We aim to examine the relationship between these
two measures, to determine the factors that affect lizard body temperatures and to
test the effect of both temperature measures on lizard life history.
Methods We used a large (861 species) global dataset of lizard body temperatures,
and the mean annual temperatures across their geographic ranges to examine
the relationships between body and mean annual temperatures.We then examined
factors influencing body temperatures, and tested for the influence of both on
ecological and life-history traits while accounting for the influence of shared
Results Body temperatures and mean annual temperatures are uncorrelated.
However, accounting for activity time (nocturnal species have low body temperatures),
use of space (fossorial and semi-aquatic species are ‘colder’), insularity
(mainland species are ‘hotter’) and phylogeny, the two temperatures are positively
correlated. High body temperatures are only associated with larger hatchlings and
increased rates of biomass production. Annual temperatures are positively correlated
with clutch frequency and annual longevity, and negatively correlated with
clutch size, age at first reproduction and longevity.
Main conclusions Lizards with low body temperatures do not seem to have
‘slower’ life-history attributes than species with high body temperatures. The longer
seasons prevalent in warm regions, and physiological processes that operate while
lizards are inactive (but warm enough), make environmental temperatures better
predictors of lizard life-history variation than body temperatures. This surprisingly
greater effect of environmental temperatures on lizard life histories hints that global
warming may have a profound influence on lizard ecology and evolution.
Meiri, S. & Brown, J.H. & Sibly, R.M. (2011) -
Aim We provide a new quantitative analysis of lizard reproductive ecology. Comparative
studies of lizard reproduction to date have usually considered life-history
components separately. Instead, we examine the rate of production (productivity
hereafter) calculated as the total mass of offspring produced in a year. We test
whether productivity is influenced by proxies of adult mortality rates such as
insularity and fossorial habits, by measures of temperature such as environmental
and body temperatures, mode of reproduction and activity times, and by environmental
productivity and diet. We further examine whether low productivity is
linked to high extinction risk.
Methods We assembled a database containing 551 lizard species, their phylogenetic
relationships and multiple life history and ecological variables from the literature.
We use phylogenetically informed statistical models to estimate the factors
related to lizard productivity.
Results Some, but not all, predictions of metabolic and life-history theories are
supported. When analysed separately, clutch size, relative clutch mass and brood
frequency are poorly correlated with body mass, but their product – productivity –
is well correlated with mass. The allometry of productivity scales similarly to
metabolic rate, suggesting that a constant fraction of assimilated energy is allocated
to production irrespective of body size. Island species were less productive than
continental species.Mass-specific productivity was positively correlated with environmental
temperature, but not with body temperature. Viviparous lizards were
less productive than egg-laying species. Diet and primary productivity were not
associated with productivity in any model. Other effects, including lower productivity
of fossorial, nocturnal and active foraging species were confounded with
phylogeny. Productivity was not lower in species at risk of extinction.
Main conclusions Our analyses show the value of focusing on the rate of annual
biomass production (productivity), and generally supported associations between
productivity and environmental temperature, factors that affect mortality and the
number of broods a lizard can produce in a year, but not with measures of body
temperature, environmental productivity or diet.
Meiri, S., Bauer, A.M., Allison, A., et al. (2017) -
Aim: Small geographic ranges make species especially prone to extinction from an- thropogenic disturbances or natural stochastic events. We assemble and analyse a comprehensive dataset of all the world’s lizard species and identify the species with the smallest ranges—those known only from their type localities. We compare them to wide-ranging species to infer whether specific geographic regions or biological traits predispose species to have small ranges.
Methods: We extensively surveyed museum collections, the primary literature and our own field records to identify all the species of lizards with a maximum linear geo- graphic extent of <10 km. We compared their biogeography, key biological traits and threat status to those of all other lizards.
Results: One in seven lizards (927 of the 6,568 currently recognized species) are known only from their type localities. These include 213 species known only from a single specimen. Compared to more wide-ranging taxa, they mostly inhabit relatively inaccessible regions at lower, mostly tropical, latitudes. Surprisingly, we found that burrowing lifestyle is a relatively unimportant driver of small range size. Geckos are especially prone to having tiny ranges, and skinks dominate lists of such species not seen for over 50 years, as well as of species known only from their holotype. Two- thirds of these species have no IUCN assessments, and at least 20 are extinct.
Main conclusions: Fourteen per cent of lizard diversity is restricted to a single location, often in inaccessible regions. These species are elusive, usually poorly known and little studied. Many face severe extinction risk, but current knowledge is inadequate to properly assess this for all of them. We recommend that such species become the focus of taxonomic, ecological and survey efforts.
Melnikov, D.A. (2011) -
The distribution of steppe-runners in the surveyed region depends on the presence of sandy substrates. Eremias arguta inhabits sandy steppes with low vegetation. The northern distribution limit of steppe- runners in the south of European Russia lies about 50 – 53°N. The morphological character of steppe- runners there shows both cline and discrete variations. The cline variations are independent in the Don and Volga basins, which supports the idea of past distribution ways of the species. A gradient of discrete characters also occurs in the Don and Volga interfluves. There are some populations in the Taman penin- sula and Daghestan which are characterized by a unique combination of characters. Some individuals from the right-side Volga-river populations are characterized by a morphology intermediate between E. a. arguta and E. a. deserti, because of the intergradation zone adjacency. Substrate «loose sand» and «im- movable sand» forms in the Middle Don-river populations were discovered.
Мельников Д.А. (2011) -
В результате проведенного исследования удалось установить, что распространение вида на территории России определяется наличием песчаных грунтов. Разноцветная ящурка населяет песчаные степи ранних стадий зарастания. Северная граница распространения вида на исследуемой территории проходит примерно на 50 - 53° с.ш. Разноцветная ящурка на территории Европейской части России имеет сложную популяционную структуру. Количественные и качественные признаки характеризуются клинальной и дискретной изменчивостью. Клинальная изменчивость выражена в бассейнах Дона и Волги независимо - в прошлом продвижение вида на север происходило по пескам речных долин. Перепад частот дискретных признаков также наблюдается в Волго-Донском междуречье. Имеются изолированные популяции вида, характеризующиеся особым сочетанием признаков на Таманском полуострове и на Червленых Бурунах. У особей некоторых популяций разноцветной ящурки с правобережья Волги имеются признаки промежуточного характера между западным и номинативным подвидами - это обусловлено близостью зоны интерградации этих подвидов. На песках Среднего Дона у разноцветной ящурки есть эдафические формы, соответствующие условиям обитания на сыпучих или закрепленных песках.
Melville, R.V. (1981) -
Ménétries, E. (1832) -
Mertens, R. (1921) -
Mertens, R. (1952) -
Mertens, R. (1957) -
Mertens, R. (1969) -
Mertens, R. & Müller, L. (1928) -
Mertens, R. & Wermuth, H. (1960) -
Mikaili, P. & Shayegh, J. (2011) -
The etymology of the reptiles, especially the lizards of Iran has not been completely presented in
other published works. Iran is a very active geographic area for any animals, and more especially for lizards,
due to its wide range deserts and ecology. We have attempted to ascertain, as much as possible, the construction
of the Latin binomials of all Iranian lizard species. We believe that a review of these names is instructive, not
only in codifying many aspects of the biology of the lizards, but in presenting a historical overview of collectors
and taxonomic work in Iran and Middle East region. We have listed all recorded lizards of Iran according to
the order of the scientific names in the book of Anderson, The Lizards of Iran. All lizard species and types have
been grouped under their proper Families, and then they have been alphabetically ordered based on their
scientific binominal nomenclature. We also examined numerous published works in addition to those included
in the original papers presenting each binomial.
Mishagina, J.V. (1991) -
Mishagina, J.V. (1992) -
Mishagina, J.V. (2008) -
Mishagina, J.V.M. (2005) -
Mishagina, J.V.M. (2007) -
Diet of sand racerunner (Eremias scripta, Lacertidae) was studied in barchan sands of Eastern Kara Kum (Turkmenistan, Repetek biosphere reserve) in May – June and in August, 1989. There were discovered remains of 424 prey items in feces of 28 individuals of E. scripta. The paper analyzes food habits of racerunners by biocoenotic indexing method. Lizards’ preys were divided into nineteen elementary ecological groups and several mass categories.
Mishagina, Z.V. (1988) -
Mishustin, S. (2022) -
The dissertation presents the results of long-term studies of the dynamics of the number, spatial and age-sex structure of populations of three main species of lizards of semi-deserts of the southeastern part of the Lower Volga region: Eremias arguta deserti Gmel., 1788, Phrynocephalus mystaceus mystaceus Pall., 1776 and Phrynocephalus guttatus guttatus Gmel., 1789. In all species, a decrease in numbers was revealed up to complete extinction (Phrynocephalus mystaceus mystaceus Pall., 1776). The cause of population changes were successional processes directed towards the development of steppe phytocenosis. The succession led to a gradual increase in the projective coverage, overgrowing of ecological corridors and a change in the tiering of the plant community. It has been reliably shown that changes in phytocenosis are associated with an increase in the total amount of precipitation in this area over the past decade.
Mishustin, S.S. & Polynova, G.V. (2021) -
The investigation in the population structure of the western subspecies of the multicolored lizard (Eremias arguta deserti Gmelin, 1789) was carried out in semi-deserts of the Lower Volga region. The purpose of the study was to find out the features of the population morphometric data. The main research methods: measuring the length of the trunk and tail with an accuracy of up to a millimeter, statistical data processing using the Kolmogorov – Smirnov test in the STATISTICA 12 program. Statistical analysis showed the presence of sexual dimorphism in the population in terms of body parameters: the length of the tail of males is significantly greater than that of females. The calculation of the statistical significance of the differences be- tween the average length of the trunk and the length of the tail confirmed that males and females have longer tails than the trunk. Yet sexually mature males and females do not differ signifi- cantly from each other in terms of body size. At the same time, females have a certain variability of morphometric data, which serves as one of the main indicators of intra-population variability.
Мишустин, С.С. & Полынова, Г.В. (2021) -
В процессе изучения популяционной структуры западного подвида разноцветной ящурки (Eremias arguta deserti Gmelin, 1789) в полупустынях юго- восточной части Нижнего Поволжья получен значительный объем морфометрических данных, обработка которого позволила выявить морфологические особенности иссле- дованной популяции. Основные методы исследований: измерение длины туловища и хвоста с точностью до миллиметра, статистическая обработка данных с помощью кри- терия Колмогорова – Смирнова в программе STATISTICA 12. Статистический анализ показал наличие у популяции полового диморфизма по параметрам тела: длина хвоста самцов достоверно больше, чем самок. Расчет показателя статистической значимости различий между средней длиной туловища и длиной хвоста подтвердил, что у самцов и самок хвосты длиннее туловища. В то же время по параметру размера туловища поло- возрелые самцы и самки достоверно друг от друга не отличаются. Одновременно самки обладают определенной вариативностью морфометрических данных, что служит одним из основных показателей внутрипопуляционной изменчивости.
Misyura, A.N. & Bulakhov, V.L. & Gasso, V.Y. & Sukhanova, V.N. & Poloz, O.V. (1995) -
Mocquard, F. (1910) -
Molavi, F. & Kalat, T.M. & Yazdanpanah, M. & Kiabi, B.H. & Kami, H.G. (2017) -
Markazi Province with its extended deserts and Anderson reported Eremias intermedia Strauch 1876, from Iran-Afghanistan border and Eremias nigrocellata Nikolsky 1896 from north and east of Iran. He also represented some features for recognition of these similar species. This study that lasted about one year was aimed at identifying herpetofauna of Kharturan protected area. 15 specimens of Eremias were obtained their measurements in agreement with the characters of neither Eremias intermedia nor Eremias nigrocellata that descrtibed by Anderson from Iran.
Monkhbayar, K. (1981) -
Monkhbayar, K. (2018) -
New record of 3 species of amphibians (Hynobius keyserlingii, Bufo viridis, Rana chensinensis) and 9 species of reptiles (Teratoscincus przewalskii, Alsophylax pipiens, Gymnodactylus elongatus, Eremias argus, Eremias arguta potanini, Eremias vermiculata, Lacerta vivipara, Ery tataricus, Coluber spinalis) in Mongolia over the last 20 years have been reported.
Moravec, J. (1994) -
Mozaffari, O. & Ahmadzadeh, F. & Parham, J. F. (2011) -
We describe a new species of Eremias lacertid from the Alborz Mountain range in northern Iran (Tehran Province). Eremias
papenfussi n. sp. is part of the Eremias subgenus (or morphotype) by virtue of lacking lateral fringes on the fourth
toe and color pattern. It can be further differentiated from previously described species assigned to this morphotype by the absence of distinctly keeled upper caudal scales, gular scales that do not extend to the second inframaxiallary scales, color pattern, and scale counts. Eremias papenfussi is found on rocky mountain slopes of the Alborz where it is presumed to have a much broader distribution than demonstrated by the available specimens. Of the 15 species of Eremias known from Iran, E. papenfussi is the fifth species known to inhabit rocky mountain slopes along with E. strauchi, E. lalezharica, E. montanus and E. novo.
Mozaffari, O. & Ahmadzadeh, F. & Saberi-Pirooz, R. (2020) -
We describe a new species of Lacertid lizard of the genus Eremias from the border of the northeastern side of Markazi Province to the western side of Tehran Province in Iran. Eremias fahimii sp. nov. is part of the Eremias subgenus (or morphotype) by virtue of lacking lateral fringes on the fourth toe, having movable eyelids, a lower nasal shield that rests on two supralabials, and ventral plates arranged in oblique longitudinal rows. It can be further differentiated from previously described species assigned to this morphotype by the absence of distinctly keeled upper caudal scales, gular scales that do not extend to the second inframaxiallary scales, shape and relative size of frontoparietals, parietal and parietals, scale counts and absence of lateral color ocellus. In addition, the molecular phylogeny of the most common Iranian racerunnersincluding Eremias fahimii sp. nov. was studied using mitochondrial Cytochrome b (Cyt b) and 12S ribosomal RNA (12S) genes. Our results support the validation of the new species which depicts a sister group relationship to E. persica. Of the 20 species of Eremias known from Iran, E. fahimii sp. nov. is the seventh endemic species along with E. andersoni, E. isfahanica, E. lalezharica, E. kavirensis, E. montana and E. papenfussi. Despite the fact that up to now E. fahimii sp. nov.is only known from the type locality, it is highly probable that it also occurs in Tehran, Alborz, Qom, Qazvin and Zanjan Provinces due to topological characteristics and habitat similarities in these areas.
Mozaffari, O. & Parham, J.F. (2007) -
A new species of lacertid lizard, Eremias kavirensis sp.nov., is described from Isfahan Province in central Iran. The new species differs from all other known Iranian Eremias by having a subocoluar scale that does not reach the mouth, fringed toes, scales on flank distinctly larger than those of back, two rows of tibial scales, and its coloration. The known distribution of this distinctive new species is restricted to the Maranjaab sand dunes, Kavir Desert (Dasht-e-Kavir), Isfahan Province, Iran.
Mulder, J. (1995) -
Mulder, J. (2019) -
Presented is a comprehensive overview of data on the herpetological species occurring in the Ararat region of Turkey. A total of 41 species, including their first records, published historical localities, and respective sources, are recorded in this assessment of surprisingly high regional species richness.
Munkhbaatar, M. & Terbish, H. & Bobrov, V.V. & Erdenetushig, P. (2018) -
М.Мунхбаатар & Х.Тэрбиш & В.В.Бобров & П.Эрдэнэтушиг (2018) -
Munkhbayar, K. & Borkin, L.J. (2010) -
A new subspecies of the multi-ocellated racerunner, Eremias multiocellata tsaganbogdensis Munkhbayar et
Borkin, 2010, subsp. nov. (Lacertidae) is described. Holotype: ZISP.19956.1, Department of Herpetology,
Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Type territory: Tsagaan Bogd Uul
Mountain, Bayanhongor Aymak, southern Mongolia.
Munkhbayar, K. & Borkin, L.J. (2018) -
A new subspecies of the multi-ocellated racerunner, Eremias multiocellata tsaganbogdensis Munkhbayar et Borkin, 2010, subsp. nov. (Lacertidae) is described. Holotype: ZISP.19956.1, Department of Herpetology, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg. Type territory: Tsagaan Bogd Uul Mountain, Bayanhongor Aymak, southern Mongolia.
Munkhbayar, K. & Borkin, L.Y. (1990) -
Munkhbayar, K. & Munkhbaatar, M. (2018) -
From the viewpoint of evolution, the classes of amphibians and reptiles could be considered as relicts, and because they are poikilothermic animals, it’s very difficult for these species to live under the dry and cold climatic conditions in Mongolia. Even species diversity is poor, Mongolian herpetological composition is unique, highly adopted to the country’s harsh climate and originated a long time ago. In Mongolia, 6 species of amphibians belong to four genera, four families and two orders and the recorded 21 species of reptiles belong to 13 genera in 6 families of 2 suborders.
Najafov, J.A. & Hashimov, R.T. (2019) -
60 species of reptiles live in the Azerbaijan Republic. From them 17 species, or 28.3% are spread on Absheron Peninsula. These species belong to 3 orders, 13 families, 22 genera. Lizards are reptiles belonging to the order Squamata. On Absheron peninsula lizards inhabit a wide variety of biotopes, from garden habitats to sand dunes. Most species of Absheron are diurnal, but Caspian bent-toed geckos comprise a night time fauna in many habitats. Many species, can shed their tails in order to escape from predators. Lizards have many morphological adaptations that suit them to the substrates they inhabit, from specialized toe-pads in vertical rock-face dwellers to fringed-toes in loose-sand runners. Modern scientific study of lizards in Absheron began with the field natural history studies of E.P. Menetriem and E.E. Eichwald in the 19th century.
Nasrabadi, R. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Khani, A. (2016) -
The reptile`s fauna of Sabzevar was investigated during 10 years (2003-2013). In total 42
species belonging to 29 genera, 13 families and two orders (Squamata and Testudines)
were collected and identified. The most diverse group in the area is lizards with 23
species, followed by snakes with 18 species and the testudines with one species. The most
diverse families are Colubridae, Lacertidae with 8 and Gekkonidae with 5 species
respectively, followed by Agamidae with 4 species, Viperidae, Boidae and Scincidae with
3 species each, Lamrophiidae and Spherodactylidae with 2 species and 4 families
Elapidae, Thyphlopidae, Varanidae and Testudonidae with only one species each.
Nazarov, R.A. & Poyarlov, N.A. & Orlova, V.F. & Bondarenko, D.A. & Nabizadeh, H. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2021) -
Nerutschev, W.W. & Kosyreva, O.A. & Nakarenok, E.H. (1989) -
Neymark, L.A. (2021) -
Nikolsky, A.M. (1886) -
Nikolsky, A.M. (1896) -
Nikolsky, A.M. (1897) -
Nikolsky, A.M. (1907) -
Nikolsky, A.M. (1915) -
Nilson, G. & Andren, C.. (1981) -
Seventeen species of reptiles and one species of amphibians have so far been reported from the Kavir Protected Region in the Kavir desert of Iran. These are Agamura per- sica, Agama a. agilis, Phrynocephalus scutellatus, Phrynocephalus maculatus, Varanus griseus caspius, Eremias andersoni, Eremias persica, Mesalina guttulata watsonana, Eumeces schneiderii princeps, Ophiomorus nuchalis, Coluber k. karelini, Coluber rho- dorhachis ladacensis, Psammophis schokari, Spalerosophis diadema schirazianus, Echis carinatus, Pseudocerastes p. persicus and Bufo kavirensis. A species of Uromastyx, probably U. asmussi, is also registrated from the area. Agama b. blanfordi, Phryno- cephalus helioscopus persicus and Ophisops e. elegans are reported from areas south and west of the Kavir Protected Region but might as weil occur inside it. Some taxo- nomic questions are discussed and data concerning habits and distribution are presented.
Noori, S. & Hawlitschek, O. & Oldeland, J. & Rajaei, H. & Husemann, M. & Simoes, M. (2021) -
The global struggle to conserve as many species as possible with limited resources requires an improvement of our knowledge on the distribution of biodiversity. In Iran, the state of knowledge is poor for most groups of organisms, except few vertebrate groups and vascular plants. Reptiles are one of the best known, most diverse vertebrate groups in Iran, with a high rate of endemism (ca. 29%), but distribution patterns and related environmental drivers remain poorly understood. In the present study, based on a large publicly available dataset, we use general additive modelling (GAM) to identify explanatory variables for species richness of reptiles in Iran. Results indicate heterogeneity parameters (range +entropy) as the variables with the highest explanatory values. Based on the grid cells of the predicted environmental richness, using hotspot analysis, we suggest seven hotspots of reptile diversity (HRDs) across the country. Our results corroborate the previously recognized HRDs and detect three additional ones, located alongside the major mountain ranges around the central deserts plateau, particularly in the Zagros Mountains. Four of the largest HRDs (ca. 90%) situate within the Irano-Anatolian and Caucasus global biodiversity hotspot. In addition, our results reveal a large gap between identified HRDs and the current network of protected areas (PAs) in the country. While three of the detected HRDs in this study are partially touched (ca. 18%) by the PA network, overall, these areas are only covered by less than 10%. Therefore, the effectiveness of the current PAs for the protection of the reptile diversity of Iran is questionable.
Nordmann, A. (1840) -
Nurtazin, S.T. & Bazarbaeva, Z.M. & Reshetova, O.A. & Naumova, L.I. & Zharkova, L.I. (2007) -
O`Shea, M. (2021) -
Obst, F.J. (1962) -
Obst, F.J. (1963) -
Oefinger, B. & Oefinger, P. (2013) -
Oefinger, B. & Oefinger, P. (2019) -
Orlov, V.F. (2008) -
Orlova, V. & Nazarov, R. & Chirikova, M. (2017) -
Orlova, V.F. (1986) -
Orlova, V.F. (1989) -
Orlova, V.F. (1991) -
Orlova, V.F. (1992) -
Orlova, V.F. (1993) -
Orlova, V.F. (1995) -
Orlova, V.F. (2008) -
Orlova, V.F. & Chirikova, M.A. & Nazarov, R.A. & Poyarkov, N.A. (2016) -
Four species from the E. multiocellata-complex occur in Kyrgyzstan and southeastern Kazakhstan. e taxonomic state of the populations from Kazakhstan is ambiguous. e results of comparative morpho- logical analysis (habitus, color pattern on the dorsal side of the body, metric and meristic characters) in the E.stummeri from two localities in Kyrgyzstan (including type locality) and south-eastern Kazakh- stan are presented. Signi cant di erences were revealed in Sq., G. and L. /L. cd features. As a result, the racerunners from the southeastern Kazakhstan are morphologically identi ed as E. stummeri. Our ob- servations and the analysis of the museum collections con rm independent speci c states of three allo- patric species of E. multiocellata-complex in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakh Tien Shan.
Orlova, V.F. & Chirikova, M.A. & Pavlinov, I.Y. (2012) -
Steppe-runner Eremias arguta (Pallas 1773) is one of the most widespread species of the Asian racerunners (genus Eremias) inhabiting steppes, semi-deserts and deserts of Eastern Europe, Middle and Central Asia. Several subspecies were traditionally recognized, however, their morphological variability is so high that the delimitation and establishing of formal taxonomical status of some populations was always problematic. The metric and meristic morphological characters of E. arguta from 12 populations of Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, northwestern China and southwestern Mongolia were analyzed using different multivariate statistic methods and preliminary results of molecular analysis of mtDNA cytochrome b gene. The studied populations are clustered in five groups. Based on both morphological and molecular characters, the southernmost populations from Uzbekistan and Chimkent region (Kazakhstan) form a clearly separated group E. a. uzbekistanica, quite different from all other subspecies. The populations from the Ili River valley (southeastern Kazakhstan and northwestern China) were formerly considered as transitional ones between E. a. arguta — E. a. uzbekistanica or E. a. potarcini, but in fact they represent a separate form. The easternmost samples assigned as `E. a. potanini` are deeply nested within E. a. arguta cluster and seem to be a local form with clinal variation of morphological characters.
Орлова В.Ф. & Чирикова М.А. & Павлинов И.Я. (2012) -
Разноцветная ящурка один из наиболее широко распространенных видов азиатских ящурок, населяющий степи, полупустыни и пустыни Восточной Европы, Средней и Центральной Азии. Традиционно внутри вида распознавали несколько подвидов, однако изменчивость признаков внешней морфологии так высока, что определение подвидов и придание таксономического статуса некоторым популяциям, особенно в восточной части ареала, всегда было проблематичным.
Orlova, V.F. & Dunaev, E.A. (1992) -
Orlova, V.F. & Dunayev, E.A. & Nazarov, R.A. & Terbish, K. & Erdentushig, P. (2014) -
Here we present the main results of our 2008 field research held in the south-western Mongolia by a herpetological team of the Russian – Mongolian biological expedition. 13 reptile species belonging to five families and eight genera have been recorded. Phrynocephalus versicolor was the most widespread and abundant lizard species. Eremias przewalskii and E. multiocellata were also common in semi-fixed sands subjected to considerable over-grazing (Dundgov’, Umnegov’). Several new localities for Ph.versicolor hispida and E. m. multiocellata and E. m. reticulata are reported. Cyrtopodion elongatum was found in the Nogondov (=Nogon-Dovon) valley located in 300 km northwards from the previously known occurrence of this species. This valley inhabited by Teratoscincus przewalskii, Eremias vermiculata, and Eryx tataricus can be considered as the most western part of the Trans-Altai Gobi Desert adjacent to the Mongolian Dzungaria. The actual status of the C. elongatum populations seems to be out of concern because, according to our night observations, the population density exceeds 20 ind per 500 m². The taxonomical status of Ph. v. hispida and E. m. reticulata is discussed, and the specific status of racerunners collected in the area of their sympatry in the Hovd aimag was confirmed. Some coloration features of living adults and juveniles individuals of the lizards (especially, Eremias and Phrynocephalus species) are reported.
Орлова В. Ф., Дунаев Е. А., Назаров Р. А., Тэрбиш Х., Эрдэнтушиг П. (2014) -
работе представлены основные результаты полевых исследований герпетологического отряда Российско- Монгольской биологической экспедиции в 2008 г. в юго-западной Монголии. В ходе экспедиции зарегистри- ровано 13 видов пресмыкающихся, принадлежащих 5 семействам и 8 родам. Phrynocephalus versicolor – са- мый распространенный и массовый вид ящериц. E. przewalskii и E. multiocellata также многочисленны в по- лузакрепленных песках, подверженных значительному перевыпасу скота (Дундговь, Умнеговь). Приводятся новые точки находок Ph. v. hispida, E. m. multiocellata и E. m. reticulata. Cyrtopodion elongatum найден в уро- чище Ногондов (= Ногон-Довон), в 300 км севернее известного местонахождения вида. Это ущелье, где оби- тают Teratoscincus przewalskii, Eremias vermiculata и Eryx tataricus, можно считать самым западным участком Заалтайской Гоби, граничащим с монгольской Джунгарией. Состояние популяций C. elongatum, по нашим данным, не вызывает опасений, так как плотность населения по результатам ночных учетов составляет более 20 особей на 500 м2. Уточнен таксономический статус Ph. v. hispida и E. m. reticulata, подтверждена видовая самостоятельность глазчатых ящурок из зоны симпатрии в Кобдоском аймаке. Описаны особенности при- жизненной окраски ювенильных и взрослых особей ящериц.
Orlova, V.F. & Dunayev, E.A. & Nazarov, R.A. & Terbish, Kh. & Erdentushig, P. (2014) -
Here we present the main results of our 2008 field research held in the south-western Mongolia by a herpetological
team of the Russian – Mongolian biological expedition. 13 reptile species belonging to five
families and eight genera have been recorded. Phrynocephalus versicolor was the most widespread and
abundant lizard species. Eremias przewalskii and E. multiocellata were also common in semi-fixed sands
subjected to considerable over-grazing (Dundgov’, Umnegov’). Several new localities for Ph.versicolor
hispida and E. m. multiocellata and E. m. reticulata are reported. Cyrtopodion elongatum was found in
the Nogondov (=Nogon-Dovon) valley located in 300 km northwards from the previously known occurrence
of this species. This valley inhabited by Teratoscincus przewalskii, Eremias vermiculata, and Eryx
tataricus can be considered as the most western part of the Trans-Altai Gobi Desert adjacent to the Mongolian
Dzungaria. The actual status of the C. elongatum populations seems to be out of concern because,
according to our night observations, the population density exceeds 20 ind per 500 m². The taxonomical
status of Ph. v. hispida and E. m. reticulata is discussed, and the specific status of racerunners collected in
the area of their sympatry in the Hovd aimag was confirmed. Some coloration features of living adults
and juveniles individuals of the lizards (especially, Eremias and Phrynocephalus species) are reported.
Key words: herpetofauna, geographic distribution, population density, habitats, body coloration, southwestern
Орлова В.Ф., Дунаев Е.А., Назаров Р.А., Тэрбиш Х., Эрдэнтушиг П. (2014) -
Приведены фаунистические результаты пяти экспедиций (1995, 1996, 2007, 2011 и 2012 гг.) в восточную и северо-восточную Турцию. Материал собран на хребтах Понтийском (Лазистанском), Арсиянском, Шавшетском, Чимен, Гюмушхане, в бассейне р. Чорох, бассейнах верхнего течения рек Аракс, Кура, Евфрат, Тигр, Харшит (Доганкент) и в бассейне озера Ван. В общей сложности было найдено 2 вида хвостатых амфибий, 6 видов бесхвостых амфибий, 2 вида (3 подвида) черепах, 25 видов (30 подвидов) ящериц и 21 вид змей.
Orlova, V.F. & Poyarkov, N.A. & Chirikova, M.A. & Nazarov, R.A. & Munkhbataar, M. & Munkhbayar, K. & Terbish, K. (2017) -
We provide an integrative analysis of the diversity of the E. multiocellata—E. przewalskii species complex in Central and Middle Asia using morphological and molecular (COI DNA-barcoding) data. We report preliminary data on mtDNA variation within this group and clarify the taxonomic status and distribution of the members of the species complex. We also provide a description of a new Eremias species from Eastern Kazakhstan and western Mongolia, where it occurs in sympatry with E. multiocellata sensu stricto, from which it can be clearly differentiated using both morphological and molecular characters. The new species, described as Eremias dzungarica sp. nov., is assigned to the subgenus Pareremias on the basis of the following features: subocular not reaching mouth edge; one frontonasal; two supraoculars; the row of small granular scales between supraoculars and frontal with frontoparietals absent; distance between the femoral pore rows being wide; femoral pore rows not reaching knee-joint; coloration pattern with light colored ocelli with black edging. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners on the basis of the following morphological attributes: a mediumsized lacertid lizard, maximum snout-vent length (SVL) = 64.5 mm, tail being ca. 1.5 times longer than body length (SVL), hindlimbs relatively long (hindlimb length to SVL ratio 0.46); subocular scale not reaching mouth edge, in touch with 6–8 supralabials; males with bright coloration consisting of 2–3 dorsolateral rows of light-colored ocelli with thick black edging; the ventral row of ocelli in life is greenish to bluish; dorsal pattern consisting of black irregular blotches along the middorsal line. We also report on the high genetic and morphological diversity of E. multiocellata in Mongolia and China, synonymize E. m. bannikowi with the nominative form E. m. multiocellata, discuss variation within E. przewalskii, synonymize E. p. tuvensis with the nominative form E. przewalskii, provide new data on E. cf. reticulata and E. m. tsaganbogdensis, confirm validity and clarify distribution ranges of E. stummeri, E. szczerbaki and E. yarkandensis and discuss further progress on taxonomic studies of the E. multiocellata—E. przewalskii species complex.
Orlova, V.F. & Poyarkov, N.A. & Chirikova, M.A. & Dolotovskaya, S.I. (2007) -
Orlova, V.F. & Solovyva, E.N. & Dunayev, E.A. & Ananjeva, N.B. (2022) -
The Kokshaal racerunner, Eremias kokshaaliensis Eremchenko et Panfilov, 1999, together with other central Asian racerunner species, is included in the Eremias multiocellata complex. In the present work, for the first time, the results of the analysis of historical mitochondrial DNA (barcode) are presented and the taxonomic status and preliminary phylogenetic relationships within the complex are specified. We present, for the first time, the results of the molecular analysis using historical DNA recovered from specimens of several species of this complex (paratypes of the Kokshaal racerunner and historical collections of the Kashgar racerunner E. buechneri from Kashgaria) using DNA barcoding.
Orlova, V.F. & Terbish, Kh. (1986) -
Orlova, V.F. & Terbish, Kh. (1997) -
Oskyrko, O. & Jablonski, D. (2021) -
This study provides distribution data for 12 species of reptiles in the Southern Bug eco-corridor located within the steppe zone, Mykolaiv Oblast (province), Ukraine. We compiled 935 records from published literature (324), from public databases (68), and from 12 field surveys we made in 2016–2020 (543). All records were mapped on to a grid of 10×10 km, representing the 294 cells of the studied area. We present new distributional data for Podarcis tauricus. For all the other species, our records add new localities that fall within areas where these reptiles were previously reported. Species richness and Shannon’s H’ index show that herpetofauna diversity was higher in the areas along the Southern Bug River. The maximum number of records within a single cell was 118 (for 10 species) in this oblast. Also the high number of identified reptile chorotypes (nine) within the Mykolaiv Oblast revealed that southern Ukraine is an important zoogeographical territory in Europe. These data provide the basis for future biogeographical and ecological studies and conservation priorities.
Pallas, P.S. (1771) -
Pallas, P.S. (1773) -
Pallas, P.S. (1793) -
Panner, T. (2003) -
Park, H.-C. & Suk, H.-J. & Jeong, E.-J. & Park, D.-S. (2014) -
The Mongolian racerunner (Eremias argus) is a small lacertid lizard species, and its distribution range encompasses the Korean Peninsula, Mongolia, China and Russia. Eremias argus is widespread, but populations on the Korean Peninsula are small and declining, provoking concerns that genetic diversity is being lost. This species is currently listed under the Protection of Wild Fauna and Flora Act in South Korea. In this study, nine novel microsatellites for E. argus were developed with a biotin-enrichment method and used to understand its population genetic structure and delineate conservation units on the Korean Peninsula. Overall, low intrapopulation genetic diversity was observed (mean number of alleles per locus = 2.463; mean H E = 0.398) from 10 populations investigated (n = 110). Two populations (among five with n≥ 10) showed an excess of heterozygosity expected under HWE relative to that expected at mutation-drift equilibrium, indicating severe reduction in population sizes. With only a few exceptions, the overall genetic differentiation among populations was substantial with the high levels of pairwise-F ST (0.006-0.746) and -R ST (0.034-0.940) values. The results of Bayesian STRUCTURE analysis showed that E. argus populations on the Korean Peninsula were most likely partitioned into three genetic clusters. Taken all together, such low levels of gene flow and strong genetic structuring have critical implications for the conservation of this endangered species and its management.
Pavlicev, M. & Mayer, W. (2009) -
Lacertinae is one of the three lacertid lizard subfamilies with a geographical distribution confined to the
Palaearctic. Several past attempts to reconstruct its phylogeny resulted in unresolved bush-like topologies.
We address the question of whether the lack of resolution is due to insufficient data or whether this
lack reflects a rapid succession of speciation events. We analyzed four partial and one complete gene
sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, totalling roughly 3600 bp. We included 29 species
representing all 19 genera suggested in recent revision of Lacertinae [Arnold, E.N., Arribas, O., Carranza, S.,
2007. Systematics of the palaearctic and oriental lizard tribe Lacertini (Squamata: Lacertidae: Lacertinae),
with descriptions of eight new genera. Zootaxa 1430, 1–86]. The resulting phylogeny, first, corroborates
monophyly at the genus level for the suggested genera, as well as the finding that Atlantolacerta andreanskyi,
until recently part of Lacertinae, belongs to the subfamily Eremiadinae. Second, we find that
increasing the sequence length and combining multiple nuclear and mitochondrial sequences did not
resolve the polytomy, suggesting that the inferred topology indicates a multiple cladogenesis within a
short geological period, rather than a methodical artefact. Divergence time estimates, based on previous
estimates of several node ages, range from 13.9 to 14.9 million years for the radiation event, however
with very broad confidence interval. To associate the radiation with a narrower geological time we consider
palaeogeographic and palaeoclimatic data, assuming that the Lacertinae probably evolved in Central
Europe andWAsia after the collision of Africa and Eurasia. We suggest that this radiation may date to the
late Langhian (ca. 14–13.5 million years) when geological events caused abrupt changes in regional
water–land distribution and climate, offering a window of distinct conditions.
Pérez i de Lanuza, G. & Font, E. (2016) -
Many animals display complex colour patterns that comprise several adjacent, often contrasting colour patches. Combining patches of complementary colours increases the overall conspicuousness of the complex pattern, enhancing signal detection. Therefore, selection for conspicuousness may act not only on the design of single colour patches, but also on their combination. Contrasting long- and short-wavelength colour patches are located on the ventral and lateral surfaces of many lacertid lizards. As the combination of long- and short-wavelength-based colours generates local chromatic contrast, we hypothesized that selection may favour the co-occurrence of lateral and ventral contrasting patches, resulting in complex colour patterns that maximize the overall conspicuousness of the signal. To test this hypothesis we performed a comparative phylogenetic study using a categorical colour classification based on spectral data and descriptive information on lacertid coloration collected from the literature. Our results demonstrate that conspicuous ventral (long wavelength-based) and lateral (short wavelength-based) colour patches co-occur throughout the lacertid phylogeny more often than expected by chance, especially in the subfamily Lacertini. These results suggest that selection promotes the evolution of the complex pattern rather than the acquisition of a single conspicuous colour patch, possibly due to the increased conspicuousness caused by the combination of colours with contrasting spectral properties.
Peters, G. (1958) -
Peters, G. (2018) -
Peters, W.C.H. (1869) -
Petzold, H.-G. (1977) -
Petzold, H.-G. (1981) -
Pokorná, M. & Kratochvil, L. & Kejnovský, E. (2011) -
Background: The accumulation of repetitive sequences such as microsatellites during the differentiation of sex chromosomes has not been studied in most squamate reptiles (lizards, amphisbaenians and snakes), a group which has a large diversity of sex determining systems. It is known that the Bkm repeats containing tandem arrays of GATA tetranucleotides are highly accumulated on the degenerated W chromosomes in advanced snakes. Similar, potentially homologous, repetitive sequences were found on sex chromosomes in other vertebrates. Using FISH with probes containing all possible mono-, di-, and tri-nucleotide sequences and GATA, we studied the genome distribution of microsatellite repeats on sex chromosomes in two lizard species (the gecko Coleonyx elegans and the lacertid Eremias velox) with independently evolved sex chromosomes. The gecko possesses heteromorphic euchromatic sex chromosomes, while sex chromosomes in the lacertid are homomorphic and the W chromosome is highly heterochromatic. Our aim was to test whether microsatellite distribution on sex chromosomes corresponds to the stage of their heteromorphism or heterochromatinization. Moreover, because the lizards lie phylogenetically between snakes and other vertebrates with the Bkm-related repeats on sex chromosomes, the knowledge of their repetitive sequence is informative for the determination of conserved versus convergently evolved repetitive sequences across vertebrate lineages. Results: Heteromorphic sex chromosomes of C. elegans do not show any sign of microsatellite accumulation. On the other hand, in E. velox, certain microsatellite sequences are extensively accumulated over the whole length or parts of the W chromosome, while others, including GATA, are absent on this heterochromatinized sex chromosome. Conclusion: The accumulation of microsatellite repeats corresponds to the stage of heterochromatinization of sex chromosomes rather than to their heteromorphism. The lack of GATA repeats on the sex chromosomes of both lizards suggests that the Bkm-related repeats on sex chromosomes in snakes and other vertebrates evolved convergently. The comparison of microsatellite sequences accumulated on sex chromosomes in E. velox and in other eukaryotic organisms suggests that historical contingency, not characteristics of particular sequences, plays a major role in the determination of which microsatellite sequence is accumulated on the sex chromosomes in a particular lineage.
Polynova, G.V. & Misgustin, S.S. (2020) -
Materials on the spatial structure of the lizard Eremias arguta deserti (Gmelin, 1789) were collected in the sandy semi-deserts of the Astrakhan region during the 2017-2019 field seasons. Three-year studies at the level of intra-population grouping show a gradual reduction in the population size from season to season. During the mating season, the spatial structure of the grouping is first transformed from a system of overlapping individual plots of males and females (2017) into a system of isolated territories of sexual partners (2018), and then into a small grouping of isolated home ranges of females (2019). This is due to the fact that lizards are dispersed in the area of decreasing inherent open biotopes. The decrease is also typical for the nomadic part of the grouping, which confirms the general decline in the population in the surrounding area. The group is gradually ceasing to reproduce, as evidenced by the absence of immature individuals in all spring seasons and a decrease in the number of current year’s young at the end of summer 2018 compared to the same period in 2017. The main reason for the described process of population degradation is a change in the biotope characteristic of the species – the overgrowth of sand massifs, which has been observed in recent years in many areas of desert and semi-desert ecosystems. Observations show that the negative consequences of biotope overgrowth are the deterioration of conditions for movement and communication. The measurement of the projective cover and plant species diversity of phytocenosis, carried out on sample geobotanical plots in 2011, 2014 and 2017, indicates that the territory is being transformed into steppe. The main reason for steppification is the increase in total precipitation over the past decade from 2010 to 2019. The latter is confirmed by a positive correlation between the increase in the projective cover and the total amount of precipitation over this period.
Polynova, G.V. & Mishustin, S.S. & Polynova, O.E. (2020) -
Studies on the sex-age structure in a population of the multi-colored lizard (Eremias arguta deserti Gmelin1788) was carried out at the level of the elementary intra population group. Research area: sandy semi-desertsnear the village Dosang, Astrakhan Region. The groups’ definition was based on observations of the behavior,the published information about the species’ sex-age structure, confirmed by autopsy, and a statistical anal-ysis. The data obtained show the presence of five sex-age groups in the Spring population: immature individ-uals, half-adult males and females, and 2-year old mature males and females. In addition, according to theirsize, there were animals possibly older than 2 years, but they were singular. The September population of themulti-colored lizard was likewise divided into five age groups: juveniles, half-adult individuals of both sexes,and a small number of 1-year old mature individuals of both sexes. The Autumn intra-population group wasnot numerous, because by that time most of the adult animals had gone for hibernation. In Spring, the groupof semi-adult lizards was 7.2 times smaller than that of adults. In Autumn, the number of juveniles was2.1 times higher than in adults. In Spring, the sex ratio among the adult animals was close to 1 : 1, amongsemi-adults the females predominated numerically, while both in Spring and Autumn the females prevailedamongst the half-adults.
Pope, C.H. (1935) -
Pour, F.E. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Ghorbani, B. (2016) -
Poyarkov Jr., N.A. & Orlova, V.F. & Chirikova, M.A. (2014) -
Steppe racerunner, Eremias (Eremias) arguta, is one of the most widespread species of the Asian racerunners (genus Er-emias). Several subspecies were traditionally recognized however, morphological variability is so high that delimitation of these subspecies was always problematic. Here we present a phylogenetic hypothesis for this species based on cyto-chrome b sequences (55 samples from 35 populations, 900 bp partial sequences), infer it biogeography and the revise its subspecific structure. Six major phylogenetic lineages were revealed. The southernmost populations (E. a. uzbekistanica) from Uzbekistan form a clade together with the Issyk-Kul Lake subspecies (E. a. darevskii) based on both molecular and morphological evidence. Within more northern populations, there is a split between populations from Northern Caucasus, Europe and Western Kazakhstan (E. a. deserti) and Central and Eastern Kazakhstan populations (E. a. arguta). Transcau-casian (E. a. transcaucasica) steppe racerunners are grouped with Middle Asian populations. Finally, the easternmost samples, assigned to “E. a. potanini” are nested within the E. a. arguta clade. Populations from the Ili River Valley form a separate lineage sister to the clade joining all other E. arguta lineages and might represent a yet undescribed taxon. Spe-cies distribution in relation to historical biogeography of Middle Asia is discussed.
Procter, J.B. (1921) -
Prokopov, K.P. (1978) -
Prokopov, K.P. (1996) -
Prokopov, K.P. (2002) -
Qi-Lei, H., Hong-Xia, L., Xiang, J. (2006) -
We used the Mongolian racerunner Eremias argus as a model animal to evaluate the effects of constant versus fluctuating incubation temperatures on hatching success and hatchling phenotypes. Eggs were incubated under four constant [24, 27, 30 and 33 (±0.3) °C] and one fluctuating temperature regimes. Hatching success did not differ among treatments, and incubation temperature did not affect the sexual phenotype of hatchlings. Incubation length decreased exponentially as incubation temperature increased, and eggs incubated at fluctuating temperatures took a longer time to complete development than did those incubated at constant temperatures with the same mean. Of the hatchling phenotypes examined, body dry mass, carcass dry mass, residual yolk dry mass and locomotor performance of hatchlings were more likely to be affected by incubation temperature. Overall, locomotor performance was best in the low temperature treatments (24 °C and 27 °C) and worst in the high temperature treatment (33 °C), with the moderate temperature treatments (30 °C and fluctuating temperatures) in between. Our data show that: (1) daily exposure of eggs to extreme temperatures that are potentially lethal to embryos for brief periods does not have detectable adverse effects on hatching success and morphological phenotypes in E. argus; and (2) thermal fluctuations exert no positive effects on locomotor performance of hatchlings but influence incubation length differently than constant temperatures with the same mean [Acta Zoologica Sinica 52(6):1049 – 1057, 2006].
Qiang, C. (1995) -
The resting metabolic rates (RMR) of two species of lizards Eremias argus and Phrynocephalus frontalis were measured in April and May 1990. The results showed a positive correlation between RMR and temperature and an inversely exponential relationship of RMR with body weight. Laboratory acclimation indicated that the rates of bodyweight losting in both species of lizard were more sensitive to temperature in the range of 10～15℃ and 20～25℃. The circadian ryhthm of RMR of both species were also noted. The difference of RMR between two species was not significant.
Ra, N.-Y. & Lee, J.-K. & Lee, J.-H. & Kim, J.-K. & Kim, D.-I. & Kim, B.-N. & Kim, I.-H. & Park, D. (2011) -
Although lizards are important hosts for hard ticks (Ixodidae), very few studies have been conducted in South Korea. To determine whether or not hard ticks can infest lizards endemic to South Korea, we examined 77 lizards of four species (Eremias argus, Sincella vandenburghi, Takydromus amurensis, and Takydromus wolteri) that were collected at 22 different sites between April and October 2010. We confirmed that all four lizard species can be infested by Ixodes nipponensis larvae or nymphs. Of the 62 E. argus examined, we found an average of 12.5 larvae on two lizards and an average of one nymph on one lizard. We found seven nymphs on one S. vandenburghi. We found an average of two nymphs on two of the five T. amurensis and an average of one nymph on four of the nine T. wolteri. Ixodes nipponensis larvae and nymphs were found most frequently on the foreleg axillae (87.8%), followed by the forelegs (7.3%), the eyelids (2.4%), and the ears (2.4%) of the lizards. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of I. nipponensis infestations of lizards endemic to South Korea.
Radde, G. (1899) -
Rahbar, A. & Karami, M. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Mohammadi, A. (2011) -
Eremias montanus belonging to the family Lacertidae and is an endemic lizard of Iran. Endemic species because only certain geographical areas there are many values are for academic studies. In this study to find these regions to make a lot of Hamedan province were studied, but observed only in Alvand Mountain in 18 km Hamedan province. The research was performed from early April until late November in 2009; while this species spend hibernation and samples were collected by line transect method. In total 13 samples were collected the 10 specimens were mature and 3 specimens were immature and morphological, ecological and ethological studies were conducted on them. In this study, for the first time this species was detected in Hamedan province, whereas reported only in previous studies of Siah dareh Village in Kermanshah province.
Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2009) -
The rapid fringe-toed lizard, Eremias velox, is widely distributed in the Iranian plateau and
Central Asia. Several local morphotypes have so far been reported from different parts of
its range, representing this taxon as a species complex. In an attempt to reveal
phylogenetic relationships among various populations of this complex group, 37
specimens from 13 geographically distant localities in Iran and central Asia, covering
most parts of its range, were sampled. Using Inter Simple Sequence Repeat amplification
(ISSR-PCR) as a molecular marker, whole the nuclear genome of all specimens was
screened. Phylogenetic analysis of the prepared data set successfully recovered seven
major clades within the E. velox complex. Relationships among the major clades were
highly resolved with remarkable statistical supports and well correspond to the
geographic distribution of the populations. The reconstructed phylogeny implies that the
clade as a whole has been originated in the Iranian plateau and expanded into central Asia
before uplifting the Kopet-Dagh Mountains. It has then undergone a rapid cladogenesis
in the latter area and produced several morphotypes. Within the Iranian clades two main
groups could be defined, the foothill and highland dwellers and the open plane and desert
dweller populations. The phylogenetic tree together with the estimated amounts of
genetic distances among the independent lineages, provide good grounds for a
fundamental revision of the taxonomic status of the Eremias velox complex.
Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Avci, A. & Kumlutaş, Y. & Ilgaz, Ç & Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. (2013) -
Iran is located in an area that is bordered by several mountains and contains herpetofaunal
constituents from adjacent countries such as Pakistan, Iraq, Afghanistan, and Turkey. We
surveyed several border provinces of Iran to more completely understand the Iranian herpetofauna.
During one survey in the northwestern part of Iran we found a species of the genus Eremias that can
be added to Iran’s herpetofauna. Previously, the distribution of Eremias suphani was limited to the Van Lake in Turkey (type locality). We compared Iranian samples with E. suphani from Turkey using a molecular marker (Cytochrome b) and confirmed that this species is also present in Iran. The new record of this species is located on the road from Firoragh to Chaldoran in the west of the province of Azarbaijan, Iran.
Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Wink, M. (2015) -
Strauch`s Racerunner, Eremias strauchi, is represented by two subspecies, Eremias strauchi strauchi Kessler, 1878 and Eremias strauchi kopetdaghica Szczerbak, 1972, occurring in opposite margins on the northern Iranian Plateau. We sequenced 3926 base pairs of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from 16 samples of Eremias strauchi, Eremias lalezharica and Eremias velox collected from northeastern, northwestern and southern Iran. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Eremias lalezharica is sister to Eremias strauchi kopetdaghica and caused the currently recognised species Eremias strauchi to be paraphyletic. According to the estimated genetic distances in the mitochondrial fragments among the lineages, E. s. strauchi diverged from E. s. kopetdaghica and E. lalezharica with a mean genetic distance of 14.0% and 13.9% respectively. Our data indicate enough molecular divergence between the two currently recognised subspecies of E. strauchi and justify upgrading them to full species level as Eremias strauchi (for the north-western clade) and Eremias kopetdaghica (for the north-eastern clade).
Rastegar-Pouyani, E. & Rastegar-Pouyani, R. & Kazemi Noureini, S. & Joger, U. & Wink, M. (2010) -
The Persian racerunner Eremias persica Blanford, 1875 is confined to the Iranian plateau, and forms one of the most widespread but rarely studied species of the family Lacertidae. With many local populations inhabiting a variety of habitats, and exhibiting considerable morphological, genetic, and ecological variations, it represents a species complex. We analysed sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes derived from 13 geographically distant populations belonging to the E. persica complex. Using our knowledge of palaeogeographical events, a molecular clock was calibrated to assess the major events in fragmentation, radiation, and intraspecific variation. The sequence data strongly support a basal separation of the highland populations of western Iran from those of the open steppes and deserts, occurring in the east. The subsequent radiation, fragmentation, and evolution of these major assemblages have led to several discernable geographical lineages across the wide area of the Iranian plateau. The results indicate a middle-Miocene origin for the clade as a whole. The first split, isolating the western and eastern clades, appears to have occurred 11–10 Mya. Further fragmentations and divergence within the major clades began about 8 Mya, with an evolutionary rate of 1.6% sequence divergence per million years among the lineages in the genes studied (combined data set). Molecular and morphological data strongly support a taxonomic revision of this species complex. At least four of the discovered clades should be raised to species, and two to subspecies, rank.
Rastegar-Pouyani, E., S. Hosseinian, S. Rafiee, H.G. Kami, M. Rajabizadeh & M. Wink (2016) -
A new species of the lacertid genus Eremias Fitzinger, 1834 is described from northwest of Isfahan province, Central Iran. Two mitochondrial genes (cyt b and 12S DNA) were sequenced and analyzed as reliable molecular markers for the separation of this newly discovered species from closely related species within the genus Eremias: E. velox, E. persica, E. papenfussi, E. lalezharica, E. montana, E. strauchi, E. kopetdaghica and E. suphani. Genetic distances (K2-p) between any of these species with the newly described species are relatively high (27.5–32.8% for cyt b and 5.2–10.4% for 12S DNA). Phylogenetic analyses (MP, ML and BI) generated trees with very similar topologies. According to molecular and morphological data, Eremias isfahanica sp. nov. belongs to the subgenus Aspidorhinus, and is closely related to E. papenfussi. Because several new Eremias species have recently been described from the Iranian Plateau, we additionally provide an updated identification key.
Rastegar-Pouyani, E.R. & Noureini, S.K. & Rastegar-Pouyani, N.R. & Joger, U. & Wink, M. (2012) -
The Central Asian racerunner, Eremias velox, is a widely distributed lizard of the Eurasian lacertid genus Eremias. Nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial genes, cyt b and 12S rDNA from 13 geographically distant localities in Iran and Central Asia, were analysed. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequence data unambiguously recovered five major clades within the E. velox complex with a high level of genetic divergence, indicating long periods of isolation. The basal position of the Iranian clades in the phylogenetic trees suggests that the E. velox clade originated on the Iranian plateau in the Middle Miocene. According to our calibrations, the northern Iranian clade diverged first some 10–11 Ma and that the Central Asian lineages split from the northeastern Iranian lineage approximately 6 Ma, most likely as a result of uplifting of the Kopet-Dagh Mountains in the northern margin of the Iranian plateau. Topology of the phylogenetic trees, combined with the degree of the genetic distances among the independent lineages recovered in this study, provide a solid foundation for a fundamental revision of the taxonomic status of the major clades within this species complex.
Rastegar-Pouyani, N. (2006) -
Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Kami, H.G. & Rajabizadeh, M. & Shafiei, S. & Anderson, S.C. (2008) -
An updated checklist of the herpetofauna of Iran is presented based on records of amphibian and reptile species whose presence has been confirmed in Iran as a result of extensive field expeditions, examination of herpetological collections, literature review, and personal communications from researchers. The herpetofauna of Iran consists of 13 species and five subspecies of frogs and toads belonging to five genera and four families, eight species of salamanders belonging to four genera and two families, nine species and six subspecies of turtles, terrapins and tortoises belonging to nine genera and six families, one species of crocodile, one species of amphisbaenian, more than 125 species of lizards belonging to 36 genera and eight families as well as 79 species of snakes belonging to 37 genera and six families
Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Nilson, G. (1997) -
A new species of the lacertid genus and subgenus Eremias is described based on material collected by the senior author from 150 km northeast of Shiraz, Fars province, south-central Iran at about 1800 m elevation. It differs from all other Iranian species of the typical subgenus (E. persica, E strauchi, E velox and E. lalezharica) in that it has a very distinctive and unique color pattern, unmistakable in this character the wide dorsolateral stripe is uniformly black without light spots and there is no ocelli on the upper surface of limbs; the third pair of submaxillary shields are separated by 4 granular scales; and the tympanic shield is rudimentary and almost absent. The new species is sympatric with Eremias persica and apparently restricted in distribution to the steppes and open plains in the northern regions of Fars province south-central Iran.
Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2001) -
Rastegar-Pouyani, N. & Rastegar-Pouyani, E. (2006) -
A new and distinctive form belonging to the genus and subgenus Eremias Fitzinger, 1834 is reported from the highlands of Alvand Mountains, Hamedan Province, western Iran at about 2700 m elevation. It is easily distinguished from all the other species of the typical subgenus (E. velox, E. persica, E. strauchi, E. nigrolateralis E. lalezharica E. afghanistanica, E. regeli, E. suphani, and E. nikolskit) by having a variable number of postmentals (4-5 pairs); smaller size, and a distinctive color pattern. Furthermore, it can be distinguished by having a combination of characters against any of the species in the typical subgenus. Further work, using both morphological arid molecular techniques, is now being carried out on this new form in order to determine its exact taxonomic and phylogenetic status. Systematics of the genus Eremias is shortly discussed.
Ravkin, Y.S. & Bogomolova, I.N. & Chesnokova, S.V. (2010) -
Distributions of amphibian and reptile faunas were separately delimited on a 1:20 000 000 vegetation map of Northern Eurasia divided into 245 10-degree-longitudinal segments of native subzone within the USSR borders as of 1990. All reptile and amphibian species recorded in every segment were listed, and the Jaccard indices were calculated, and the similarity matrix was studied with cluster analysis. Hierarchic classifications were made: the amphibian one consisting of 3 faunistic regions, divided into 4 subregions, 7 biologic provinces, and 23 districts. The reptile classification includes 4 faunistic regions, 7 subregions, 18 provinces, and 14 districts. The reptile classification has 1.5 times more provincial and district subdivisions than amphibian one. Environmental factors correlating with faunistic nonuniformity were revealed. Our amphibian and reptile schemes are 1.9 and 3.5 times more informative than those proposed earlier and account for 75 and 91% of variance in the faunal similarity coefficient of specific areas, respectively (multiple correlation coefficients 0.87 and 0.95). Environmental factors can explain 84 and 93% of faunistic nonuniformity (correlation coefficients 0.95 and 0.96).
Rendahl, H. (1933) -
Richter, K. (1988) -
Riegler, C. & Bader, T. & Kopeczky, R. (2016) -
Der Nordosten Irans, ein faszinierendes Gebiet, einerseits durch die immense Ausdehnung arider (Hoch-) Ebenen und Hügelländer, andererseits durch die überraschende landschaftliche Vielfalt unmittelbar südlich des Kaspischen Meeres. So kontrastieren die beeindruckend dichten Hyrcanischen Wälder und das über 5000 m hohe Elburs-Gebirge die endlosen, staubtrockenen Weiten im Landesinneren. Dementsprechend groß ist auch die dortige Artenvielfalt: Knapp 60 Reptilien- und Amphibienarten konnten im Zuge der 14-tägigen Exkursion auf der 4000 km langen Rundtour beobachtet werden.
Roitberg, E.S. & Mazanaeva, L.F. & Ilyina, E. & Orlova, V.F. (2000) -
Die Echsenfauna Dagestans (südöstlicher Nordkaukasus, Russland) umfaßt 17 Arten, welche neun Gattungen in fünf Familien angehören (Gekkonidae - l, Agamidae - 4, Anguidae - 2, Scincidae – l und Lacertidae - 9 Arten). Für jede Art wurden detaillierte Verbreitungskarten mit Katastern in Dagestan (50 300 km2) erstellt. Einige Angaben zu den Habitaten, zur Häufigkeit sowie über die lokale Arealdynamik werden ebenfalls mitgeteilt.
Rößler, R. (1991) -
This is a short report about a method which could help to save life of reptiles suffering by dystocia. The author describes how he pressed out an egg from a Jeweled Lacerta and a Common Chameleon with only his fingers.
Rößler, R. (1993) -
Im Jahre 1987 erhielt ich aus Kasachstan sechs Eremias arguta. Diese Art ist neben Eremias velox die einzige ihrer Gattung, deren Verbreitungsgebiet auch den europäischen Kontinent erreicht. Das Vorkommen erstreckt sich vom Nordosten Rumäniens über den Süden der europäischen Sowjetunion, das sowjetische Zentralasien bis nach NW-China und die SW-Mongolei. Im Süden werden Transkaukasien und der nördlichste Iran erreicht. In der Türkei und in NO-China kommt die Art nicht vor.
Rovatsos, M. & Kratochvíl, L. (2017) -
While the stability of sex chromosomes is widely accepted in viviparous mammals and birds, ectothermic vertebrates are still largely viewed as having frequent turnovers in sex determining systems. Frequent changes in sex determining systems in ectotherms could be problematic for field ecological studies as well as for breeding programs, as molecular sexing across a phylogenetically widespread spectrum of ectothermic vertebrates would not be possible. However, we recently documented that sex determining systems in three important reptile lineages (caenophidian snakes, iguanas, and lacertid lizards) are in fact highly conserved. 2.We applied a new molecular procedure to identify sex within each of these three lineages (encompassing altogether around 4,000 species, i.e. nearly 50% of the recent species of reptiles). This technique uses quantitative PCR (qPCR) to compare copy numbers of genes specific for their respective Z (in caenophidian snakes and lacertids) and X (in iguanas) chromosomes between male and female genomes. The DNA samples required can be collected relatively non-invasively. Unlike molecular sexing based on repetitive elements, this technique can be easily applied to previously unstudied species of these lineages, as the number of copies of protein coding genes linked to the differentiated sex chromosomes is evolutionary highly conserved in each. 3.We suggest that qPCR-based molecular sexing using the comparison of gene copy number is a practical choice for non-model species of caenophidian snakes, iguanas and lacertids. Morever, it should also soon be available for other reptile lineages with differentiated sex chromosomes.
Rovatsos, M. & Kratochvíl, L. & Altmanová, M. & Johnson Pokorná, M. (2015) -
Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes protecting the physical ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes and therefore helping to ensure their stability and integrity. Additionally, telomeric sequences can be localized in non-terminal regions of chromosomes, forming so-called interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs). ITSs are traditionally considered to be relics of chromosomal rearrangements and thus very informative in the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of karyotype formation. We examined the distribution of the telomeric motifs (TTAGGG)n using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in 30 species, representing 17 families of squamate reptiles, and compared them with the collected data from another 38 species from literature. Out of the 68 squamate species analyzed, 35 possess ITSs in pericentromeric regions, centromeric regions and/or within chromosome arms. We conclude that the occurrence of ITSs is rather common in squamates, despite their generally conserved karyotypes, suggesting frequent and independent cryptic chromosomal rearrangements in this vertebrate group.
Rovatsos, M. & Vukic, J. & Altmanová, M. & Johnson Pokorná, M. & Moravec, J. & Kratochvíl, L. (2016) -
Sex chromosomes are believed to be stable in endotherms, but young and evolutionary unstable in most ectothermic vertebrates. Within lacertids, the widely radiated lizard group, sex chromosomes have been reported to vary in morphology and heterochroma- tinization, which may suggest turnovers during the evolution of the group. We compared the partial gene content of the Z-specific part of sex chromosomes across major lineages of lacertids and discovered a strong evolutionary stability of sex chromosomes. We can conclude that the common ancestor of lacertids, living around 70million years ago (Mya), already had the same highly differentiated sex chromosomes. Molecular data demonstrating an evolutionary conservation of sex chro- mosomes have also been documented for iguanas and caenophidian snakes. It seems that differences in the evolutionary conservation of sex chromosomes in vertebrates do not reflect the distinction between endotherms and ectotherms, but rather between amniotes and anamniotes, or generally, the differences in the life history of particular lineages.
Rui, J. & Wang, Y. & Nie, L. (2009) -
Squamata is the most diversified reptilian order that has been traditionally classified into three suborders - Lacertilia, Serpentes and Amphisbaenia in which Lacertilia have about 16-19 families. But the phylogenetic relationships among major groups of Lacertilia remain controversial. In this paper, the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of Eremias brenchleyi was determined by using long-and-accurate PCR (LA-PCR). The mtDNA sequence is 19 542 bp, making it the longest mitochondrial genome in squamates species reported so far. It shows the typical vertebrate arrangement of genes. The control region of E. brenchleyi was characterized by two conspicuous 65 bp and 56 bp tandem repeats at its 5′ and 3′ terminus respectively. In order to study the higher level relationships of squamates, the phylogenetic study including all currently available squamates mitochondrial sequences was carried out. We obtained a relationship of 16 families of lizards (Lacertidae, Scincidae, Iguanidae, Chameleonidae, Agamidae, Trogonophidae, Bipedidae, Shinisauridae, Helodermatidae, Amphisbaenidae, Gekkonidae, Varanidae, Anguidae, Xantusiidae, Rhineuridae, Cordylidae) and 8 families of Serpentes. The internal relationships within this group yielded high bootstrap support and were more congruent with morphological analyses.
Rustamova, A.K. & Shammakov, S.M. (1982) -
Fifty-three species of reptiles occur in Turkmenistan, of which 25 inhabit lowlands and 28 occur in plains and mountains. The species composition of reptiles in seven natural regions of Turkmenistan is discussed; the fauna of the sandy and clay desert is the richest. Seven species of reptiles`-occur in high density (from 10 to 71 per hectare), 30 species are frequent (1 to 10 per ha.) and 16 species are rare (0.2 to 1 per ha.). The fauna i3 subjected to a zoogeographical analysis.
Safaei-Mahroo, B. & Ghaffari, H. & Fahimi, H. & Broomand, S. & Yazdanian, M. & Najafi Majd, E. & Hosseinian Yousefkhani, S.S. & Rezadeh, E. & Hosseinzadeh, M.S. & Nasrabadi, R. & Rajabizadeh, M. & Mas (2015) -
We present an annotated checklist for a total 241 reptiles and 22 amphibians including 5 frogs, 9 toads, 7
newts and salamanders, 1 crocodile, 1 worm lizard, 148 lizards, 79 snakes and 12 turtles and tortoises, includes the most
scientific literature up to August 2014 and also based on several field surveys conducted in different Provinces of Iran
from 2009 to 2014. We present an up-to-dated checklist of reptiles and amphibians in Iran. We provide a comprehensive
listing of taxonomy, names, distribution and conservation status of all amphibians and reptiles of Iran. This checklist
includes all recognized named taxa, English names for classes, orders, families, species, subspecies along with Persian
names for species, including indication of native and introduced species. For the first time we report two non-native
introduced reptiles from natural habitats of Iran. Of the total 22 species of amphibians in Iran, 6 (27.2%) are endemic
and of the total 241 species of reptiles, 55 (22.8%) are endemic. Of the 22 amphibians species in Iran, 3 (13%) are